Scientific support of production experiments in forest plantations of green zone in Nur-Sultan city

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Abstract


Natural and climatic conditions of the green zone of Nur-Sultan (Kazakhstan) are unfavorable for tree and shrub species due to low soil fertility, sharply continental climate and other factors. The purpose of the research was to choose an assortment of stable introducents for Nur-Sultan green zone. The monitoring of growth and condition of artificial plantations included the selection of an assortment of stable coniferous introducents. The objects of research were coniferous introducents, which were planted in 2011 as container annual seedlings and three-year-old seedlings with open root system. According to the results of observations of conservation, taxation indicators and condition of artificial plantations, it was revealed that for the soil and climatic conditions of the research region, Picea nigra and Picea sibirica turned out to be the most adapted. Quercus robur was also characterized by good growth, but in the first years after planting, it was significantly damaged by late spring frosts and rodent ingestion. Larix sibirica , despite the fact that most of its plants died in the first years after planting, has adapted to soil and climatic conditions now and grows well enough and has a satisfactory condition. The safety of introduced plants planted with annual seedlings with a closed and open root system was practically the same and at the age of 8 it was 62.6 and 64.9%, respectively. It was revealed that it is better to plant crops with older seedlings (3-4 years old), because cultivation of annual seedlings with closed root system requires large financial and labor investments due to prolonged manual care. Therefore, to create artificial plantations in the green zone of Nur-Sultan, Picea sibirica , Picea nigra and Quercus robur can be recommended. When growing them, it is necessary to carry out thorough agro-technical cares and protection from rodents.


Introduction Suburban forests in green zones around cities and other settlements have undeniable benefits - they reduce the influence of adverse weather and environmental factors, improve the aesthetic situation, are used as recreation for population and perform many other functions [1-3]. Therefore, great attention is paid everywhere to the creation, conservation, and reconstruction of suburban forests [4-6]. The climatic conditions of Nur-Sultan (Kazakhstan) are unfavorable for tree and shrub species due to the low soil fertility, sharply continental climate and other factors [7, 8]. For these reasons, large labor and financial costs are required for creation, maintenance and survival of artificial plantings of the suburban zone, and because of soil salinity, inclusion of salt tolerant plants in the assortment is necessary [9]. Kazakh Research Institute of Forestry and Agroforestry, jointly with Astana ormany company, participates in the laying and monitoring of scientific and production experiments in artificial plantings of the green zone [10, 11]. The aim of the research was to determine the most appropriate wood species introduced into the green zone of Kazakhstan capital that are most adapted to adverse soil and climatic conditions. Monitoring the growth and condition of artificial plantations, they solved the problem of choosing an assortment of stable coniferous introducers. Materials and methods The objects of research were forest crops of coniferous introducents planted in 2011. Coniferous introducers were obtained from Russian nurseries in the form of oneand three-year-old seedlings with open and closed root system. Annual seedlings of Siberian spruce was planted with open root system, and seedlings with closed root system were 3-4 years old. In addition to introducers, native Pinus sylvestris seedlings were planted in Nur-Sultan. Monitoring was carried out on permanent trial plots laid in the most representative places of forest crops. Each sample had at least 200 trees, for which continuous observations were made. Quantitative traits were measured: the height of the trees was determined with a measuring rod with an accuracy of 1 cm, the trunk diameter - with a vernier caliper with an accuracy of 0.1 cm. In introduced crops that did not reach a 2 m height, the stem diameter was measured at the base of the root neck and for trees above 2 m - at an altitude of 1.3 m [12, 13]. Fruiting and condition of trees was visually determined by a 5-point system, the highest score was assigned to trees with the highest bearing and the best condition. Survival of crops was calculated as the ratio of number of living to the number of dead trees, so 50% of doubtful trees related to the dead ones, and 50% - to living trees. Results and discussion In 2019, the average survival of coniferous introducers planted with annual container seedlings varied from 19.6 to 62.6%. Engelman spruce had a large number of dubious trees, which indicated instability of plants state. Siberian spruce was the best preserved (62.6%), and only 0.3% of dubious trees were observed, the rest of the plants were in good condition (4.2 points). This year's (2019) Balsam fir died completely; in 2018, its survival was 8.8%. Weak growth and a large dying-out of Balsam fir was noted immediately after planting. Siberian spruce is the leader among coniferous introducers with open root system, whose survival continues to remain at a high level (64.9%) this year. The lowest survival index (16.5%) was found in Siberian fir. The examination revealed it was highly exposed to solar radiation (burned needles), in some cases leading to plant death. The introducent Siberian larch and native Scots pine (open root system) had low survival level - 28.1 and 23.4%, respectively. Survival of Common oak (open root system) was 1% higher than in 2018 and amounted to 88.4% in 2019, which was associated with overgrowth renewal of seedlings. A large number of dubious trees of Common oak is associated with rodent trunks damage and late spring frost influence. When comparing the average survival of seedlings, it was higher for open root seedlings (44.3%) than for closed root seedlings (35.8%) (Table 1). Average survival of forest species in Nur7Sultan green zone Table 1 Species Number of plants Survival, % total alive dead doubtful Closed root seedlings Abies balsamea 224 0 0 0 0 Picea engelmannii 2 126 1 126 961 39 53.8 Picea pungens 5 367 2 294 3 045 28 43.0 Picea nigra 1 784 350 1 434 0 19.6 Picea obovata 989 618 369 2 62.6 average 35.8 Open root seedlings Picea obovata 8 713 5 647 2 788 11 64.9 Pinus sylvestris 5 657 1 302 4 312 43 23.4 Quercus robur 4 451 3 915 375 43 88.4 Abies sibirica 2 195 279 1 916 0 16.5 Larix sibirica 2 741 769 1 967 5 28.1 average 44.3 Growth of forest species in Nur7Sultan green zone Table 2 Species Diameter, cm Height, cm Growth, cm Х ± m V, % Х ± m V, % Х ± m V, % Open root seedlings Pinus sylvestris* 3.2 ± 0.1 41.3 246.8 ± 7.0 34.6 39.1 ± 1.1 35.5 Abies sibirica 1.9 ± 0.08 43.0 82.4 ± 3.8 47.4 15.4 ± 1.1 73.0 Picea obovata 1.8 ± 0.04 40.5 154.8 ± 2.0 24.6 31.2 ± 0.7 40.6 Larix sibirica* 2.3 ± 0.07 42.6 243.8 ± 4.7 27.3 47.7 ± 1.0 29.9 Quercus robur* 2.6 ± 0.06 44.1 278.6 ± 6.2 38.4 46.7 ± 1.3 38.0 Closed root seedlings Picea nigra 2.0 ± 0.05 34.2 138.3 ± 3.5 31.6 28.8 ± 1.3 53.9 Picea engelmannii 2.3 ± 0.04 29.4 121.5 ± 2.6 32.9 26.0 ± 0.6 37.3 Picea pungens 1.9 ± 0.04 39.9 115.6 ± 1.9 36.0 24.3 ± 0.6 55.2 Picea obovata 1.0 ± 0.06 43.4 138.7 ± 4.8 35.0 33.0 ± 1.2 37.5 Note: *diameter was measured at 1.3 m height. Although the survival of black spruce was low, its condition was generally satisfactory (3.9 points). In addition, this species had fruiting. The number of cones per 1 plant ranged from 3 to 45. The cone sizes averaged 2.0...2.5 cm in length and 1.3...1.5 cm in diameter. The fruiting trees had a very decorative appearance due to red-violet color and beautiful shape of cones. The first fruit bearing was noted in 2018, at the 7th year of growing. Consider the data on height, growth and diameter of introduced trees planted with open root system (Table 2). Among coniferous open root introducers, Siberian larch had the largest diameter and height - 2.3 and 243.8 cm in 2019, respectively, the trees were in good condition. The growth of all coniferous introducers and Scots pine varied at a very high level in diameter (coefficient of variation V was 40.5...43.0%) and at high and very high level in height (V = 24.6...47,4). Siberian fir trees differed in height most of all the trees. The height of the Common oak, as a faster-growing breed, averaged 278.6 cm and an average diameter of 2.6 cm, but was also a strong differentiation of trees in growth. Common pine, as more adapted to the local conditions species, had good growth indicators both in height and in diameter. Among the crops planted with closed root, Black spruce and Siberian spruce prevailed in height, and had the similar characteristics. Engelman spruce with a small height (121.5 cm) had the largest diameter (2.3 cm), which was associated with biological characteristics of the species. Prickly spruce lagged behind other spruce species in height, but was slightly inferior to Black spruce and Engelman spruce in diameter. Comparing Siberian spruce, trees planted with closed root lagged by 10.4% in height and 44.4% in diameter compared to open root trees. But on the basis of the data obtained, it is impossible to draw a conclusion about the priority of planting seedlings with open root, since the biological age of seedlings in plants differs by 2 years. Since growth indicators vary significantly, an analysis of the minimum, maximum and average values was carried out (Table 3). The limits of the values of the growth of introduced forest species Table 3 Species Limits Diameter, cm Height, cm min Quantity, % Average Quantity, % max Quantity, % min Quantity, % average Quantity, % max Quantity, % Open root seedlings Pinus sylvestris 0.7 48.6 3.0 50.9 6.0 0.6 90 46.9 215 52.6 450 0.6 Abies sibirica 0.5 52.8 1.9 46.3 3.6 0.9 20 58.3 82 40.7 235 0.9 Picea obovata 0.4 47.2 1.8 52.5 5.1 0.3 70 56.3 155 43.4 275 0.3 Larix sibirica 0.4 53.5 2.3 45.0 5.1 1.5 67 48.0 240 51.5 430 0.5 Quercus robur 0.3 60.3 2.7 39.4 7.0 0.3 60 55.2 280 5.1 580 39.7 Closed root seedlings Picea nigra 0.6 39.9 2.0 59.5 3.6 0.7 30 44.1 140 55.3 240 0.7 Picea engelmannii 0.7 26.5 2.0 73.1 4.0 0.4 25 50.4 120 48.7 230 0.9 Picea pungens 0.3 51.8 2.0 48.0 4.6 0.2 9.5 48.4 115 51.4 225 0.2 Picea obovata 0.4 37.7 0.9 60.4 2.5 1.9 52 51.7 140 47.4 240 0.9 In coniferous open root seedlings, the minimum and average height were found most often, plants with a maximum height - from 0.3 to 0.9%. Only in Common oak trees with a maximum height (up to 580 cm) were found in 39.7% of the total number of measured trees. In all coniferous introducers with closed root system, height of plants refers to the minimum and average indicators, number of plants with maximum height is 0.2...0.9%. 300 250 200 Pinus sylvestris Abies sibirica 150 Picea obovata 100 Larix sibirica Quercus robur 50 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Fig. 1. Dynamics of height (cm) of introduced species (open root seedlings) 160 140 120 100 80 60 Picea nigra Picea engelmannii Picea pungens Picea obovata 40 20 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Fig. 2. Dynamics of height (cm) of introduced species (closed root seedlings) Introducers are observed from their planting. Figures 1 and 2 clearly show the growth dynamics in height of all the studied tree species. Starting from the second year of life, open root seedlings of Common oak exceeded all other seedlings in height. Native Ordinary pine ranked the second place in growth. Siberian larch, significantly lagging in growth from Ordinary pine, has so far caught up with it in height, which has increased by 35%. The same sharp jump was observed in the period 2014-2015, then height of Siberian larch increased by 43.2% and by 56% in Common oak. The height of Siberian spruce varied according to the research years within 21.5...26.7%, in 2019 its height increased by 33.5%. This is primarily due to the weather conditions in 2019, when there were many rainy days with high air temperatures. In addition, the plants successfully survived post-planting stress and local acclimatization. Two Spruce species - black spruce and Siberian spruce - grew almost identically, Engelman and Spiny spruce slightly lagged behind the above species in height. Moreover, Engelman spruce up to this year lagged behind other species, and now it is equal in height to them. Conclusion According to the results of observations of survival, taxation indicators and state of artificial plantations, it was revealed that for the soil and climatic conditions of the research region - green zone of Nur-Sultan city, the most introduced species were the Black and Siberian spruce species. Common oak was also characterized by good growth and vitality, although in the first years after planting it underwent significant damage by late spring frosts and rodents. Siberian and Balsam firs were characterized by weak growth, low survival rate and vitality. Siberian larch, despite the fact that most plants died in the first years after planting, has now adapted to soil and climatic conditions and grows well enough in satisfactory condition. The survival of Siberian spruce, planted with one-year-old seedlings with closed root and three-year-old seedlings with open root, at 8 years of age was 62.6 and 64.9%, respectively. Although the growth and survival of spruce trees planted with different types of planting material varied minimally, it is better to plant crops with older seedlings (3-4 years old), since the cultivation of annual closed root seedlings requires prolonged manual care with large financial and labor investments. Therefore, Siberian spruce, black spruce (3-4-year-old seedlings) and Common oak (1-2-year-old seedlings) can be recommended to create artificial plantations in green zone of Nur-Sultan. When cultivating them, it is necessary to carry out thorough agro-technical cares and protection from rodents.

Svetlana A Kabanova

Kazakh Research Institute of Forestry and Agroforestry

Author for correspondence.
Email: Kabanova.05@mail.ru
Shchuchinsk, Republic of Kazakhstan

Candidate of Biological Sciences, Head of the Department of Forest Reproduction and Afforestation

Andrey N Kabanov

Kazakh Research Institute of Forestry and Agroforestry

Email: 7058613132@mail.ru
Shchuchinsk, Republic of Kazakhstan

Master student, Researcher, Department of Forest Reproduction and Afforestation

Ardak A Khasenov

Astana Ormany company

Email: astana_ormani@mail.ru
Nur-Sultan, Republic of Kazakhstan

chief agronomist, Astana ormany company

Matvey A Danchenko

Tomsk State University

Email: mtd2005@sibmail.com
Tomsk, Russian Federation

Candidate of Geographical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Forestry and Landscape Construction, Biological Institute

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