Vol 14, No 2 (2019)

Crop production
DNA insecticides as an emerging tool for plant protection and food security strategies
Nyadar P.M., Razo S.
Abstract

A large number of plant diseases and damages are caused by insects and insect vectors of plant pathogens, leading to the serious threats facing plant protection and food security. The access to safe and nutritiously high-quality food is essential for human growth and development. This translates to a well-developed society with systematically organized efforts for maintenance and increased food production or supply to meet the continuous growing demand. The effects of environmental, biological, chemical, political and socioeconomic factors have all contributed to the present nature of food dynamics, its availability, supply and security. Hence, the development of safe bio-based substances should be prioritized for precise and effective use in plant protection strategies. This review examines the sequential results of the insecticidal potentials of unmodified short single-stranded DNA fragments used as DNA insecticides, and emerging tool for safe plant protection strategy.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(2):105-113
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Development and use of synanthropic phytocenoses with complex invasion in Kaluga region
Burlutskiy V.A., Mazurov V.N., Osokin I.E., Peliy A.F., Semeshkina P.S., Borodina E.S., Gins M.S., Peliy A.F.
Abstract

Currently, less than 33% of arable land is used in Meshchovskoye Opolye. Optimizing technology elements of resource-saving development of synanthropic fallow phytocenoses with complex invasion is relevant. The article is devoted to analysis of development of self-organizing phytocenoses with varying invasion degrees and their use on lands temporarily withdrawn from active agricultural use. Field experiments were carried out on postagrogenic gray forest loamy soils in Kaluga Research Institute of Agriculture in 2006-2018. Influence of mineral fertilizers as an optimization element of technology of fallow development was studied using transects and permanent survey sites on the area of 12.0 ha. The reasons for change in productivity and its determining elements in hayfields in autogenous - allogenic phytocenoses were analysed. We established that economic value of plant communities was determined by potential of constituent species and variability of their productivity in years with various environmental conditions. 12 years later phytocenoses become homogeneous and consist of 10-12 main plant species, determining green mass productivity by 75%. Compared to native species invasive plant species have 1.4-2.0 fold higher productivity which accounts for 60% and more productivity of phytocenoses. Transforming role of Erigeron canadensis L., Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl. and Solidago gigantea Ait. on their expansion into aboriginal herb (share in mowed mass - 40% or more) communities was shown; their high adaptive potential for ecological-soil conditions of Meshchovskoye Opolye (center of Nonchernozem Zone of Russia) was established. Application of mineral fertilizers (P40K90) in the secondary Trifolium medium phytocenoses (more than 40%) contributed to 2.4-fold increase in its productivity (from 1.38 to 3.29 kg/m2) and increased productivity stability by 60%, reducing low-value species in crop structure by 1.6 times. The total area of cenopopulations increased by 10.4-21.5%, yields - from 2.31 to 4.41 kg/m2.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(2):114-122
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Effect of sowing type and irrigation method on productivity of legume-bluegrass mixtures under multiple cutting
Bulakhtina G.K., Kudryashov A.V., Kudryashova N.I.
Abstract

Research objective was to study influence of various irrigation methods and sowing types on productivity of legume-bluegrass mixtures under multiple cutting. Effect of irrigation methods on productivity of different perennial forage grasses grown in light brown soils of Northern Caspian region was studied for the first time. The experiment had two factors - forage grass mixtures ( Agropyron pectiniforme , Trifolium pratense , Phleum pratense , Festuca pratensis ; 25 : 25 : 25 : 25) and various methods of irrigation. Records and observations were made according to the practical standards of B.A. Dospekhov, I.N. Beydeman and the Study guide on mobilization of vegetable resources and introduction of arid fodder plants of Williams Fodder Research Institute. The two-year research resulted in the following conclusions: widespread sowing turned out to be far more effective compared to drilling and was 40.9 t/ha higher; grass yields under flooding were the lowest in all sowing variants and differed insignificantly - 55.6 t/ha in drilling and 55.2 t/ha in widespread sowing.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(2):123-132
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Yield and quality of potato tubers depending on a complex of chemicals applied under radioactive contamination
Sekirnikov A.E., Sedov V.V., Shapovalov V.F.
Abstract

The influence of chemicals on productivity and quality of potato tubers cv. Kurazh cultivated on sod-podzolic sandy soils under radioactive contamination was studied in the south-west of the central Non-Black Soil Zone of the Russian Federation. Organo-mineral system (manure, 40 t/ha + N75P30K90) applied in complex with chemicals and biological agent Gumistim turned to be the most effective fertilizer system providing the maximum potato yields during the experiment. Moreover, complex application of the chemicals increased protein level and decreased starch content in tubers, it also improved amino acid composition; concentration of heavy metals and specific activity of cesium-137 did not exceed sanitary and hygienic standards (SanPiN 2.3.3 1078-01).

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(2):133-141
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Nutrient removal and payback of mineral fertilizers by harvest of winter wheat varieties under technologies of different intensity levels
Rebukh N.Y., Polityko P.M., Kapranov V.N., Kiselev E.F.
Abstract

Nutrient removal and payback of mineral fertilizers by harvest of winter wheat varieties were studied under technologies of different intensity levels in 2012-2015. The design of the experiment included three fertilizer systems divided into three yield levels (6, 8 and 10 t/ha) adjusted for the actual content of mobile phosphorus and potassium in the soil. Samples of grain and straw were taken for each variety and technology before harvesting, nutrient content was determined. Calculation of nutrient removal was carried out at 14% moisture. Nutrient removal and payback of fertilizers by harvest of winter wheat varieties depended on genetic characteristics and cultivation technology. Nemchinovskaya and Moskovskaya varieties had the highest (17-29 kg/kg) and the lowest (39-21 kg/kg) fertilizer payback, respectively, in high-intensity technology. The lower the stem height, the lower the nutrient removal. The sum of fertilizers (NPK) used by Nemchinovskaya 24 variety was 210 kg/ha in standard technology, 330 kg/ha in intensive technology, and 450 kg/ha in high-intensity technology. Lower fertilizer costs were noted on average over the research years. Increasing intensity of technology - from standard to high-intensity - resulted in increased nutrient removal and fertilizers costs, and their payback decreased.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(2):142-153
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Botany
Ecological functions of forest stands in urbanized environment of Moscow
Dubenok N.N., Kuzmichev V.V., Lebedev A.V.
Abstract

In urban forests, stock production is not the main function of stands. Carbon sequestration, the release of oxygen and phytoncides, dust precipitation, and changing wind conditions et al. are the main environmental functions. Phyto-organic substances emitted by trees help to reduce the number of microorganisms in air make the air cleaner and fresher. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the ecological functions of forest stands based on long-term observations of the forest stands of the Forest Experimental District of the Russian State Agrarian University - Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy. The study used data about 7 permanent trial plots in natural pine stands, 7 - in pine plantations (planting density - 32 000 trees per 1 ha), 13 - in larch plantations (planting density - 700-4000 trees per 1 ha), 8 - in oak stands (natural stands and plantations) and 9 - in birch stands (natural stands and plantations). For a year, 1 ha of forest covered area produces 10 tons of oxygen, and the entire territory of the Forest Experimental District produces about 2.5 thousand tons of oxygen. In the year, the stands of the Forest Experimental District absorb about 3 thousand tons of carbon dioxide. The forest stands of the Forest Experimental District are capable of precipitating 135 tons of dust and they emit about 130 tons of phytoncides into the air during the growing season. Under urban conditions, forest stands are subject to the influence of negative factors: emissions from industrial enterprises and transport, recreational loads, disruption of natural conditions, and many others. Negative factors lead to a decrease in the performance of ecological functions. Therefore, in urban forests it is necessary to carry out silvicultural measures to increase the sustainability and productivity of stands.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(2):154-161
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Veterinary science
The efficiency of use lentiviral vectors for the transformation of rooster spermatogenic cells in vivo
Volkova N.A., Vetokh A.N., Volkova L.A., Nataliya A.Z.
Abstract

Male gonad cells are considered as promising target cells for the introduction of recombinant DNA within obtaining genetically modified individuals with given characteristics. The use of testicular spermatogonial stem cells is of the greatest interest. In the process of differentiation, this type of cell gives rise to a significant population of mature male germ cells. In the case of their genetic transformation, differentiated cells can be used to inseminate females in order to produce transgenic progeny. The aim of the research was to study the efficiency of using lentiviral vectors for the local transformation of roosters’ testicular spermatogenic cells. We used a lentiviral vector containing the ZsGreen reporter gene under the control of the CMV promoter. In vitro transformation of rooster spermatogenic cells was carried out by infection with a viral preparation, in vivo through multiple injections of the viral preparation into the testicular parenchyma of roosters ( n = 5). The efficiency of transformation was assessed by expression of the reporter ZsGreen gene in transfected spermatogenic cells. The success of using lentiviral vectors for the genetic transformation of rooster spermatogenic cells was shown in experiments in vitro and in vivo . The transformation efficiency of this cells types in an in vitro culture varied from 45 to 57% and averaged 48 ± 4%. The expression of the ZsGreen reporter gene in the cells of the spermatogenic epithelium of the testes was established in almost all experimental roosters in the in vivo experiments. The number of seminiferous tubules with transformed spermatogenic cells varied in the studied experimental roosters from 10 to 22%. The effectiveness of genetic transformation of the testes spermatogenic cells was 1.8 ± 0.2%. The obtained results indicate to the success of using lentiviral vectors for the genetic transformation of spermatogenic cells of rooster testes in vivo in order to create individuals with genetically transformed germ cells for the further production of transgenic offspring with given characteristics.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(2):162-169
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Veterinary sanitary inspection
Improving laboratory control of butter
Seregin I.G., Nikitchenko D.V., Leontiev L.B., Akulich O.A.
Abstract

The work is devoted to the improvement of laboratory control of cow butter, which is sold in the chain stores and markets. The social relation of buyers to butter, its range in various retailers are studied, and samples of the butter, acquired in chain stores and markets of Moscow and Vladimir, are investigated. During microbiological studies, the presence of E. coli in the butter “Krestianskoe” was established, which does not meet the safety requirements of this product. In addition, in this butter was revealed a reduced content of milk fat 71.5% instead of 72.5%. Butter “Shokoladnoe” of the “Krestianskoe” trademark had only 60% of fat content, instead of the declared 62%. The packaging of this oil is marked with a distorted label according to the shelf life and storage conditions, which indicates information falsification. There is a mismatch in selected samples with the requirements of GOST and the stated indicators, which indicates the need to develop additional methods for identifying various fakes in butter. It was determined that by melting butter in hot water, by microscopying a product using a compressor or by irradiating the surface of butter with UV rays, it is possible to quickly and reliably identify some of its falsifications.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(2):170-178
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