Development and use of synanthropic phytocenoses with complex invasion in Kaluga region

Cover Page

Abstract


Currently, less than 33% of arable land is used in Meshchovskoye Opolye. Optimizing technology elements of resource-saving development of synanthropic fallow phytocenoses with complex invasion is relevant. The article is devoted to analysis of development of self-organizing phytocenoses with varying invasion degrees and their use on lands temporarily withdrawn from active agricultural use. Field experiments were carried out on postagrogenic gray forest loamy soils in Kaluga Research Institute of Agriculture in 2006-2018. Influence of mineral fertilizers as an optimization element of technology of fallow development was studied using transects and permanent survey sites on the area of 12.0 ha. The reasons for change in productivity and its determining elements in hayfields in autogenous - allogenic phytocenoses were analysed. We established that economic value of plant communities was determined by potential of constituent species and variability of their productivity in years with various environmental conditions. 12 years later phytocenoses become homogeneous and consist of 10-12 main plant species, determining green mass productivity by 75%. Compared to native species invasive plant species have 1.4-2.0 fold higher productivity which accounts for 60% and more productivity of phytocenoses. Transforming role of Erigeron canadensis L., Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl. and Solidago gigantea Ait. on their expansion into aboriginal herb (share in mowed mass - 40% or more) communities was shown; their high adaptive potential for ecological-soil conditions of Meshchovskoye Opolye (center of Nonchernozem Zone of Russia) was established. Application of mineral fertilizers (P40K90) in the secondary Trifolium medium phytocenoses (more than 40%) contributed to 2.4-fold increase in its productivity (from 1.38 to 3.29 kg/m2) and increased productivity stability by 60%, reducing low-value species in crop structure by 1.6 times. The total area of cenopopulations increased by 10.4-21.5%, yields - from 2.31 to 4.41 kg/m2.


Introduction Opolye is one of the most fertile type of lands in the central region of Russia, 85% of which was used for agriculture in the second half of the 20th century. Currently, less than 33% of arable land is used in Meshchovskoye Opolye. The regional government together with the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation pays special attention to the solution of this issue; however, the efficiency remains low. Some features of development of secondary meadow phytocenoses and their cultivation have been revealed [1-7]. There is an insufficient amount of research on optimization of technology for resource-saving development of synanthropic phytocenoses with complex invasion in Kaluga region. Materials and methods Experiments were conducted on derelict lands with gray forest loamy soils in 2006-2018. Evolution of secondary phytocenoses and developing alternative technologies for accelerated cultivation of fallow lands in Kaluga Research Institute of Agriculture were studied. The monitoring site was located on a gently sloping gulch of floodplain terrace of the Vyssa river within the moderately eroded slope of the southeast exposure. 2 parallel transects were laid at a distance of 50 m from each other on the area of more than 12.0 ha to study allogeneic series. Each transect had 10 permanent plots with 250 m2 in area which were at a distance of 100 m from each other. Effect of mineral fertilizers in doses of P40K60 and P40K90 on productivity and structure of synanthropic phytocenoses was studied. Results and discussion By 2018 phytocenoses had been formed with varying weed invasion level. Initial stages (up to 2-3 years of development) were classified as Stellarietea mediae Tx. et al. Ex von Rochow 1951, and later ones - Artemisietea vulgaris Lohmeyer et al. Ex von Rochow 1951 [8]. The series developed in reserve mode from the bank of diasporas after turf development had a common floristic core with previous phytocenoses and were represented mainly by agrobiological group of motley grasses (55%). The most common groups consisted of aboriginal and adventitious species in varying quantities. Such transformers as E. canadensis, L. polyphyllus and S. gigantea developed successfully spreading freely throughout the Kaluga region [9]. 12 years later the phytocenoses became homogeneous and consisted of 10-12 main plant species, determining green mass productivity by 75%, and adventitious species - by 35% (Table 1). The phytocenoses of Indemutatios quarolis were determined by potential of individual plant species during their full vegetative development, and by variability of productivity in years with different environmental conditions. The communities of L. polyphyllus and S. gigantea were less dependent on such influences, while agriophyte E. canadensis contributed to the formation of their expansion boundaries. The highest variability of productivity was observed for indigenous species (average 35.99%), ranging from 18.66% for C. epigeios to 56.31% for H. perforatum. Productivity of adventitious species was characterized by lower variation - from 19.83% in E. canadensis to 22.72% in S. gigantea. Yields of invasive species significantly Table 1 Cenopopulation structure and characteristics of invasive secondary meadow phytocenosis, June 2014-2018 Species / group Productivity, kg/m2 W, % M ± m max min Cv, % Phytocenosis 2.08 ± 0.36 2.39 1.68 34.32 100.00 Main components: 1.74 ± 0.25 2.01 1.42 28.81 83.84 Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth 0.39 ± 0.07 0.43 0.33 18.66 18.54 Erigeron canadensis L. AiN. S-2 0.32 ± 0.03 0.37 0.25 19.83 15.30 Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl. CiN. S-1 0.21 ± 0.02 0.25 0.18 21.50 10.23 Solidago gigantean Ait. ACiN. S-1 0.16 ± 0.02 0.19 0.14 20.31 7.91 Tanacetum vulgare L. 0.15 ± 0.02 0.17 0.12 22.72 7.01 Artemisia vulgaris L. 0.13 ± 0.02 0.15 0.11 33.46 6.09 Vicia sepium L. 0.12 ± 0.02 0.14 0.09 34.77 5.71 Chamerion angustifolium (L.) Holub 0.11 ± 0.02 0.13 0.08 40.87 5.08 Hypericum perforatum L. 0.07 ± 0.02 0.10 0.05 56.31 3.58 Equisetum arvense L. 0.06 ± 0.10 0.07 0.04 44.65 2.70 Potentilla anserine L. 0.04 ± 0.01 0.04 0.03 37.70 1.67 Note: A-CiN - Accidental & Cultivated alien Invasive Naturalization plants; Aliens. str. - invasive naturalized unintentionally and intentionally introduced species, S-1 - invasive status of transformer; S-2 - invasive status of agriophyte, according to Richardson et al. [11]; W, % - mass fraction in crop structure. exceeded yields of native plant species. Close dependencies were observed between yields of phytocenoses and productivity of the group with dominant adventitious species (r = 79.54 ± 0.21), area of subpopulations (r = 91.21 ± 0.18), occurrence (r = 87.47 ± 0.19) and stand height (r = 85.15 ± 0.19). Introduction of the advents contributed to the rapid transformation of phytocenoses - reducing species diversity and simplifying phytocenose structure. Higher levels of specific productivity and stability of adventitious species can be considered as a manifestation of their adaptive potential to the ecological and soil conditions of Meshchovskoye Opolye. The area of the most valuable feed groups of Trifolium medium in the composition of autogenous phytocenoses varied from 7.6 to 17.5% and averaged 11.0% per 1 ha of fallow lands in 2015-2018. Top mineral fertilizing contributed to the redistribution of quantitative and qualitative links between the phytocenosis elements [11-16]. Increase in fertilizer rates increased stability of their productivity. Application of (P40К90) resulted in increase in the total area of T. medium cenopopulations by 10.4-21.5% and yield increased from 2.31 to 4.41 kg/m2. The specific productivity increased more than 2 times (Table 2). Using phytocenoses as hayfields in their allogeneic series resulted in significant increase in phytocenotic stability of T. medium. The ratio of T. medium mass fraction to secondary species in structure of mowed mass increased from 1.5 to 3.0, and coefficient of T. medium productivity variation decreased from 61.84 to 38.45%. A close relationship was found between phytocenoses yields and T. medium specific productivity (r = 0.82 ± 0.18), its share in the crop structure (r = 0.94 ± 0.08) and stand height (r = 0.57 ± 0.20). Productivity variability of secondary species was not significantly changed. Table 2 Structure and properties of T. medium phytocenoses, 2015-2018 Species / group Productivity, kg/m2 W, % M ± m max min Cv, % Natural soil fertility T. medium L. phytocenosis 2.31 ± 0.88 2.46 0.60 76.42 100.00 T. medium L. 1.38 ± 0.43 2.33 0.58 61.84 59.65 Secondary species 0.93 ± 0.37 2.67 0.31 79.20 40.35 P40К60 fertilization T. medium L. phytocenosis 3.23 ± 0.96 4.75 0.77 59.45 100.00 T. medium L. 2.17 ± 0.60 3.42 0.65 57.28 67.18 Secondary species 1.06 ± 0.45 1.33 0.21 84.33 32.82 P40К90 fertilization T. medium L. phytocenosis 4.41 ± 1.01 7.13 1.22 45.76 100.00 T. medium L. 3.29 ± 0.63 6.45 1.17 38.45 74.59 Secondary species 1.12 ± 0.45 2.69 0.38 81.06 25.41 Conclusions Autogenous phytocenoses were established to be developed from a soil bank of diasporas formed by previous communities; therefore, they had a common floristic core and potential feeding value. Hay productivity was extremely low without the use of elements of surface improvement technology. It has been revealed that invasive species: Erigeron canadensis L., Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl. and Solidago gigantea Ait. got advantage during grass restoring process under conditions of Meshchovskoye Opolye. The plants gave the impression of being aboriginal and constituted more than 1/3 of mowed mass. Application of mineral fertilizers (P40K90) in secondary Trifolium medium phytocenoses resulted in 1.9-fold increase in vegetative mass, 2-fold increase in T. medium specific productivity and 1.6-fold reduction of low-value species in crop structure

Valeriy Anatolyevich Burlutskiy

Kaluga Research Institute of Agriculture

Author for correspondence.
Email: v.burlutsky@yandex.ru
Kaluga region, Russian Federation

Candidate of Sciences in Agriculture, Leading Researcher, Kaluga Research Institute of Agriculture

Vladimir Nikolaevich Mazurov

Kaluga Research Institute of Agriculture

Email: v.mazurov@kniish.org
Kaluga region, Russian Federation

Candidate of Sciences in Agriculture, Director of Kaluga Research Institute of Agriculture

Ivan Evgenievich Osokin

Branch of Rosselkhozcenter on Tver Region

Email: ivoc@yandex.ru
Tver, Russian Federation

Head of the Branch of Rosselkhozcenter on Tver Region

Aleksandr Fedorovich Peliy

Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University)

Email: kaluga-peliy@yandex.ru
Moscow, Russian Federation

Postgraduate student, Agrobiotechnological Department, Agrarian and Technological Institute

Polina Sergeevna Semeshkina

Kaluga Research Institute of Agriculture

Email: p.semeshkina@kniish.org
Kaluga region, Russian Federation

Candidate of Sciences in Agriculture, Deputy Director for Research, Kaluga Research Institute of Agriculture

Ekaterina Sergeevna Borodina

Russian State Agrarian University - Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy

Email: ekaterinapeliy@yandex.ru
Moscow, Russian Federation

Postgraduate student, Department of Plant Growing and Meadow Ecosystems, Russian State Agrarian University

Murat Sabirovich Gins

Federal Scientific Center of Vegetable Growing

Email: anirr@bk.ru
Moscow region, Russian Federation

Doctor of Sciences in Biology, Chief of the Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Biochemistry, Introduction and Functional Products, Federal Scientific Center of Vegetable Growing

Aleksey Fedorovich Peliy

Russian State Agrarian University - Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy

Email: kaluga-peliy@yandex.ru
Moscow, Russian Federation

Master student, Russian State Agrarian University

  • Akhromeev LM. Nature, Genesis, Development History and Landscape Structure of the Opolees in Central Russia. Bryansk: Bryansk State University Publ.; 2008. (In Russ).
  • Savich VI, Sychev VG, Zamaraev AG, Syunyaev NK, Nikolskii YN. Energy assessment of soil fertility. Moscow: VNIIA Publ.; 2007. (In Russ).
  • Mazurov VN, Burlutsky V., Semeshkina PS, Zavalin AA. The phytocenoses productivity and stability on the temporary withdrawal land from agriculture. Vestnik of the Russian agricultural science. 2017; (2):9-11. (In Russ).
  • Baranov SG, Bibik TS, Vinokurov IY. Testing stability of wheat development in agrophytocenoses of Vladimirsky Opolye. Advances in current natural sciences. 2018; (12-2):272-276. (In Russ).
  • Ustyuzhanina OA, Sokolova LA, Golofteeva AS, Burlutskiy VA. The effect of different mineral backgrounds on the crop yield and the coefficient of fluctuating asymmetry for the winter and spring wheat. Regional Environmental Issues. 2017; (3):99-102. (In Russ).
  • Kutuzova AA, Privalova KN, Teberdiev DM, Semenov NA, Raev AP, Lebedev DN. Method of effective development of multi-age deposits based on multivariate technologies for pastures and hayfields and sequence of their return to arable land in the Non-Black Earth Zone of the Russian Federation. Moscow: Ugreshskaya tipografiya Publ.; 2017. (In Russ).
  • Dorogova YA, Zhukova LA, Turmuhametova NV, Polyanskaya TA, Notov AA, Dementyeva SM. Methods of Analysis of Environmental Diversity of Plants. Biology and Medicine. 2016; 8(7):354. Available from: doi: 10.4172/0974-8369.1000354.
  • Ermakov NB. Prodromus of higher vegetation units in Russia. In: Mirkin BM, Naumova LG. (eds.) The current state of the basic vegetation science concepts. Ufa: AN RB Gilem Publ.; 2012. p. 377-483. (In Russ).
  • Reshetnikova NM, Maiorov SR, Skvortsov AK, Krylov AV, Voronkina NV, Popchenko MI, et al. Kaluga flora: an annotated list of vascular plants of the Kaluga region. Moscow: KMK Publ.; 2010. (In Russ).
  • Richardson DM, Pyšek P, Rejmánek M, Barbour MG, Panetta FD, West CJ. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: concepts and definitions. Diversity and distributions. 2000; 6(2):93-107. Available from: doi: 10.1046/j.1472-4642.2000.00083.x.
  • Mazurov VN, Semeshkina PS, Filonenko VA, Lukashov VN. Spring field practices in Kaluga region in 2019 (guide). Kaluga: Kaluga Research Institute of Agriculture Publ.; 2019. (In Russ).
  • Platonova SY, Peliy AF, Gins EM, Sobolev RV, Vvedensky VV. The study of morphological and biochemical parametres of Amaranthus tricolor L. Valentina variety. RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2018; 13(1):7-13. (In Russ). Available from: doi: 10.22363/2312-797X-2018-13-1-7-13.
  • Peliy AF, Diop A, Borodina ES, Burlutskiy VA, Vvedenskaya AV, Vvedenskiy VV, et al. Use of Amazone precision sprayer in rape seed cultivation technology. In: Plyushchikov VG, Dokukin PA. (eds.) Innovation in Agriculture. Conference Papers of the Х international Scientific and Practical Conference, 26-28 April 2018, Moscow, Russia. Moscow: RUDN Publ.; 2018. p. 18-21.
  • Vvedenskaya AV, Vvedenskiy VV, Khorokhorov AM, Gins MS. Nondestructive methods of diagnostics of nitrogen provision of plants by optoelectronic system of plants monitoring. RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2017; 12(1):7-16. (In Russ). Available from: doi: 10.22363/2312-797Х-2017-12-1-7-16.
  • Garnier E, Navas ML, Grigulis K. Plant Functional Diversity: Organism traits, community structure, and ecosystem properties. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2016.
  • Barthélémy D, Caraglio Y. Plant architecture: a dynamic, multilevel and comprehensive approach to plant form, structure and ontogeny. Annals of botany. 2007; 99(3):375-407. Available from: doi: org/10.1093/aob/mcl260.

Views

Abstract - 74

PDF (English) - 44

PlumX


Copyright (c) 2019 Burlutskiy V.A., Mazurov V.N., Osokin I.E., Peliy A.F., Semeshkina P.S., Borodina E.S., Gins M.S., Peliy A.F.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.