Tomato fertigation in an open ground

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Abstract


Obtaining high and stable yields of tomato with good consumer qualities in the open field has now become problematic due to the fact that hybrids and varieties of tomato of an intensive type place high demands on the presence of moisture and nutrients in the root-soil layer. The required level of soil moisture in combination with the introduction of calculated doses of mineral fertilizers during the growing season provides for obtaining the planned yields of vegetables, including tomato. The most important resource for the further development of agriculture in the Russian Federation is irrigated land. Volgograd region is one of the largest irrigated agricultural regions in Russia. Growing of almost all vegetables in the region is conducted on irrigated lands. The use of only one irrigation without the use of fertilizers will not have a positive impact on the growth, development and productivity of plants. Fertigation is the most effective and economical way of delivering nutrients to the plant root system and allows to get a higher yields than other methods of fertilizer application. In fertigation systems, the control of optimal concentrations of fertilizers is easily achieved, their ratio and these parameters can be controlled automatically. The purpose of this work was to study the comparative efficiency of ammonium nitrate, calcium nitrate and a combination of calcium nitrate and ammonium chloride for tomato fertigation in combination with non-root dressings of complex water-soluble fertilizers containing macroand microelements in open feild on irrigated lighchestnut soil of dry steppe zone of chestnut soils in the Volgograd region. As a result, analysis of the use of mineral fertilizers for tomato fertigation in light chestnut soils of the Volgograd region was carried out. The positive effect of foliar dressing with microelements in the proposed dosages has been proven.


Introduction Tomato is one of the most popular vegetables, required by the population of the Russian Federation in a fresh form. Under favourable import conditions of the last 20 years, as well as growth of greenhouse production, fresh tomato fruits became more affordable in the off-seasonal period [1, 2]. However, obtaining high and stable tomato yields having good consumer qualities in an open feild has now become problematic as tomato hybrids and varieties and of intensive type require increased moisture and nutrient level in root layer of soil. The difficulty is that weak and underdeveloped root system of tomato seedlings have to grow a large vegetative mass in a short period of time which is possible only under optimal soil moisture and fertilizer conditions [3-5]. Irrigated cropland is the most important resource for further development of the rural economy of the Russian Federation. The Volgograd region is one of the largest regions of the country where irrigated agriculture is used. Practically, all vegetable cultivation in the region is carried out on irrigated lands [6-8]. In vegetable farms of the Volgograd region, great importance is attached to development of environmentally friendly technologies and technical means of irrigation including drip irrigation. This method allows to maintain a favorable water and air regime in soil without surface and soil runoff of irrigation water [9]. Moistening soil in combination with application of calculated doses of mineral fertilizers during the vegetative period ensures the planned yields in different vegetables including tomatoes. Based on maintaining ecological, economic, social balance and stability, one of the basic tasks of irrigated agriculture is to use every cubic meter of irrigation water most effectively. Furthermore, it is reasonable to use irrigated croplands for the most valuable, highly profitable crops, among which is tomato. Plant water consumption and mineral nutrition is closely interconnected [10]. Application of only one irrigation without fertilizers does not show a positive effect on plant growth, development and productivity. Fertigation is the most effective and economical way to increase nutrient availability to plant root system and results in higher yields compared to other methods. Control of optimal fertilizer concentration is easily accessible by the use of fertigation systems, where the parameters can be controlled automatically. A complete refusal from the use of mineral fertilizers will inevitably lead to catastrophic reduction in food production. Therefore, the most correct is improvement of fertilizer application technology, their introduction in optimal doses and appropriate storage. When fertilizer application is uneven, some plants have excess amount of nutrients, while others lack minerals. This leads to unequal plant development and ripening, decreased yields and quality. Fertigation is free from these disadvantages, since it allows to add nutrients to root layer of the soil in a predetermined calculated dosage in all growth periods and development of tomato plants. The technology of fertigation can be improved by tomato leaf dressings with mimineral fertilizers [13-15]. The goal of this work was to study comparative efficiency of ammonium nitrate, calcium nitrate and a combination of calcium nitrate and ammonium chloride for tomato fertigation in combination with non-root dressings of complex water-soluble fertilizers containing macroand microelements in open feild on irrigated lighchestnut soil of dry steppe zone of chestnut soils in the Volgograd region. Materials and methods Field experiments were conducted on light-chestnut soils in Gornaya Polyana Training Scientific and Production Center (Volgograd State Agrarian University) in 2016- 2017. Tomato fertification in combination with various leaf dressings was studied. The planting pattern is shown in Fig. 1. The number of planted plants per 1 ha was 28,000. Variants of field experiments for studing fertigation and leaf dressing effect (Gornaya Polyana) Table 1 № Variant 1 Ammonium nitrate fertigation 2 Ammonium nitrate fertigation + NPK 18 : 18 : 18 leaf dressing + microelements in vegetative phase (0.6% solution, 300 l/ha) + NPK 10 : 5 : 40 foliar dressing + microelements in the flowering-fruiting stage (0.6% solution, 300 l/ha) 3 Calcium nitrate fertigation 4 Calcium nitrate fertigation + NPK 18 : 18 : 18 leaf dressing + microelements in vegetative phase (0.6% solution, 300 l/ha) + NPK 10 : 5 : 40 foliar dressing + microelements in the flowering-fruiting stage (0.6% solution, 300 l/ha) 5 Calcium nitrate fertigation before flowering-fruiting phase (1-4 fertigations) + calcium nitrate and potassium chloride fertigation from flowering-fruiting phase (12.7 kgCl/ha, 16.9 kg K2O) (5-6 fertigations) 6 Calcium nitrate fertigation before flowering-fruiting phase (1-4 fertigations) + calcium nitrate and potassium chloride fertigation from flowering-fruiting phase (12.7 kgCl/ha, 16.9 kg K2O) (5-6 fertigations) + NPK 18 : 18 : 18 leaf dressing + microelements in vegetative phase (0.6% solution, 300 l/ha) + NPK 10 : 5 : 40 foliar dressing + microelements in the flowering-fruiting stage (0.6% solution, 300 l/ha) PE pipe 32-50 mm Start connector with rubber Compression fitting for PE Injector harness Venturi 3/4 injector Fertilizer tank Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of drip irrigation system for tomato field experiment in Gornaya Polyana Center A unique drip irrigation system was used for tomato irrigatation. Irrigation was carried out to maintain pre-irrigation soil moisture in active layer at the level of 80% FC. Soil moisture was determined by thermostat-weight method, and also controlled using tensiometers [11]. Podarochny tomato variety was planted after safflower (Asteraceae) belonging to oil crops. After harvesting safflower in August, stubble peeling followed by subsequent chisel tillage at 0.38…0.40 m and real tillage at 0.20…0.22 m was carried out. Harrowing, weed cultivation and pre-sowing cultivation with local application of complex Azofoska mineral fertilizer (16.16.16) at a dose of 200 kg/ha, 1.4 kg/plot were carried out before seedling planting. Schedule for Podarochny tomato fertification in field experiment: 1. seedling transplanting - 19 May 2. the first fertigation-June 1; 3. the second fertigation - June 9; 4. foliar dressing in tomato vegetative phase - 13 June; 5. the third fertigation - June 14; 6. the fourth fertigation - June 20; 7. foliar dressing in flowering - fruit formation stage - June 27; 8. the fifth fertigation - June 28; 9. the sixth fertigation - July 4. Results and discussion Planting seedlings in open ground was carried out in the second decade of May. During the week, the seedlings were taking root. Both pre-planting and post-planting irrigation were carried out with 80...100 m3/ha rate. 12...16 days later, well developed tomato plants formed flower buds in some variants, and flowering stage was fixed in the second decade of June for all the variants. Thus, period from planting to flowering was 36...37 days according to the variants. Period from flowering to fruit formation lasted 7…8 days. Period from fruit formation to full ripeness of fruits was from 42 to 44 days. The number of harvesting held was five. The last harvest date was on 5 September. After completing vegetative irrigation of tomato plants they remained in good condition in the end of the second decade of September. Moreover, they actively flowered, carried fruits and formed a meaningful yields of green, brown and red fruits. Hence, duration of vegetative period in the studied tomato varieties can be conditionaly accepted at an average of 110 days. Data on these indicators are shown in table 2. Dates of tomato phenological phases Table 2 Variant Main phenological phases Transplanting Flower bud formation Beginning of flowering Fruiting Beginning of ripening Mass ripening 1. Ammonium nitrate 19 May 19 June 26 June 4 July 23 July 15 August 3. Calcium nitrate 19 May 18 June 25 June 3 July 23 July 16 August 5. Calcium nitrate + potassium chloride 19 May 19 June 25 June 2 July 22 July 15 August 2 manual weeding and 6 intercultural cultivations were carried out during the vegetation period. To protect tomato plants from harmful pathogens, chemical treatments with fungicides and insecticides were carried out. In order to maintain 80% FC pre-irrigation moisture content in 0.5 m soil layer, tomato seedlings were applied with 34 irrigation treatments with a total irrigation rate of 4200 m3/ha (table 3) during the growing season. The amount of precipitation was 143 mm or 1430 m3/ha for growing season. The use of soil moisture by tomato plants was 213...276 m3/ha. Influence of fertigation and foliar dressing on water consumption in Podarochny tomato (2016-2017) Table 3 Variant Precipitation Irrigation rate Water consumption S Gross yield, t/ha Index of water consumption, m3/t Water use efficiency, kg/ha/mm 3 m /ha 1 1430 4200 276 264 5 906 5 894 68.5 69.2 86.2 85.2 115.9 117.4 2 3 213 227 5 843 5 857 71.6 72.8 81.6 80.5 122.5 124.3 4 5 245 251 5 875 5 881 89.4 103.6 65.7 56.8 152.2 176.2 6 The effect of fertilization on yield structure of tomato cv. Podarochny (2016-2017) Table 4 Variant Average number of fruits per plant Average fruit weight, g Standard fruit yield, t/ha Non-standard fruit yield, t/ha Waste (diseased fruits), % 1 20 122 64.4 4.1 6 2 22 112 65.0 4.2 6 3 23 111 68.0 3.6 5 4 23 113 69.9 2.9 4 5 24 133 84.9 4.5 5 6 26 142 99.4 4.2 4 LSD05 - 14.16. Yield, t/ha 120,0 100,0 80,0 60,0 40,0 20,0 0,0 68,5 69,2 71,6 72,8 89,4 103,6 1 2 3 4 5 6 Variant Fig. 2. Tomato yield, t/ha (2016-2017) An analysis of the harvested tomato structure shows that minimum number of fruits per plant (20) with an average mass of 122 g was formed in the first variant with ammonium nitrate without foliar treatments. The maximum values (26 fruits, 142 g) were obtained in the last variant, where calcium nitrate and ammonium chloride in combination with foliar dressings were used for fertigation. The second to fifth experimental variants occupied an intermediate position, where the average number of fruits on the plant ranged from 22 to 24, and their mass ranged from 111 to 133 g (Table 4). As a result, the total yield of standard and non-standard fruits was also the largest in the sixth variant - 103.6 t/ha, in the fifth variant it was 14.2 t/ha less, 72.8 t/ha was in the fourth variant, and the lowest yield (68.5 t/ha) was recorded in the first variant, which was 35.1 t/ha (33.8%) less compared to the sixth variant. Conclusions The obtained results confirm conclusions about the significant advantages of using calcium nitrate for tomato fertigation compared to ammonium nitrate. Moreover, the experiments demonstrated that additional application of chlorides and foliar dressings with complex water-soluble fertilizers in fertilization program gave better results. Thus, it resulted in not only tomato yield increase, but also improvement in such quality indicators, as content of soluble solids and keeping quality of fruit. The results of the study also indicate that the studied tomato fertilization programs did not showed any negative effect on salt content and composition of exchange cations in light-chestnut soil.

Omariy Georgievich Chamurliev

Volgograd State Agricultural University

Author for correspondence.
Email: attika.ge@yandex.ru
Volgograd, Russian Federation

Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Agriculture and Agrochemistry

Alexander Nikolaevich Sidorov

Volgograd State Agricultural University

Email: sash-ka2008@mail.ru
Volgograd, Russian Federation

Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, senior lecturer, Department of Agriculture and Agrochemistry

Anatoly Aleksandrovich Kholod

Volgograd State Agricultural University

Email: olodok2009@rambler.ru
Volgograd, Russian Federation

Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, senior lecturer, Department of Agriculture and Agrochemistry

Georgy Omarievich Chamurliev

Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia

Email: giorgostsamourlidis@mail.ru
Moscow, Russian Federation

Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, senior lecturer, Agroengineering Department, Agrarian and Technological Institute

Natalia Vladimirovna Bogomolova

Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia

Email: bogomolova_nv@pfur.ru
Moscow, Russian Federation

Head of the Laboratory of Experimental Remote Sensing and Monitoring of Land Resources, master student, Agrarian and Technological Institute

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Copyright (c) 2019 Chamurliev O.G., Sidorov A.N., Kholod A.A., Chamurliev G.O., Bogomolova N.V.

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