Vol 16, No 2 (2021)

Crop production
Phenological traits of red amaranth varieties with a high content of amaranthine cultivated in open fields of Moscow region
Platonova S.Y., Torres Mino C.J., Gins E.M., Gins M.S., Romanova E.V.

The article focuses on phenological features of amaranth varieties grown in open fields as a reaction to variability of weather conditions in the Moscow region. Amaranthine is one of the promising compounds found in red-colored amaranths. It refers to a class of betalain pigments. The study revealed growth stages defined by the highest content of amarantine per plant and analyzed accumulation of the pigment in amaranth leaves and inflorescences. Phenological observations of introduced plant species under new conditions are important and determine their resistance to adverse environmental factors, ability to produce high quality fruits and seeds, and potential for cultivation. During the introduction of new amaranth varieties, the most adapted forms were selected for the conditions of the Non-Chernozem zone of the Russian Federation in 2013-2016. The studied Russian and Ecuador varieties were divided into 4 groups depending on the growth period (from germination to seed maturity). Analysis of phenological traits of plants confirmed that period of amaranth development did not depend on the variety, except the fourth stage of late-ripening cultivars - ‘Don Pedro’ and ‘Eku 17020’, dependent on weather conditions. Being dependent on weather conditions, the vegetative growth period turned to be the most stable. Late cv. ‘Eku 17020’ did not form mature seeds in open ground conditions, which is explained by its origin (Ecuador). In the present study we identified growth stages when plant raw materials had the highest dye content in red-leaved amaranth varieties (‘Valentina’, ‘Don Pedro’ and ‘Fakel’). We also considered the perspective of cultivation of green-leaved varieties with red inflorescences - ‘Pamyati Kovasa’ and ‘Eku-17020’ - as sources of biologically valuable compounds in the Moscow region.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2021;16(2):107-117
Assessment of yield, plasticity and stability of spring barley cultivars grown in the European North of the Russian Federation
Batakova O.B., Korelina V.A.

In recent years, modern agroclimatic environmental conditions in the European North of the Russian Federation are determined by constant fluctuations of biotic and abiotic factors, which require a high level of plasticity and stability of crop yield and quantitative characteristics from cultivars used in agricultural production. Therefore, determining the plant response to changing environmental factors in order to select the most promising breeding seeds, is an important task for breeders. The research was conducted on experimental field of N. Laverov Federal Center for Integrated Arctic Research of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, in the nursery of competitive variety testing in 2017—2019. Cultivars of spring barley of local selection were studied. Indicators of cultivar plasticity and stability were calculated by the method of S.A. Eberhart, W.A. Rassell (1966), the indicator of genetic flexibility — by the method of R.A. Udachin (1990). Various weather conditions during the research period enabled to evaluate the breeding material comprehensively. The hydrothermal coefficient (according to G.T. Selyaninov) varied from 1.85 to 3.06 during the research years. Ten cultivar samples of spring barley were analyzed to identify a plastic stable genotype. As a result, a high level of stability was shown by samples k-037712 (Ϭ2 = 0.01), k-038404 (Ϭ2 = 0.02). Samples with a neutral genotype were identified: k-039257, k-036982 (bi < 1) and a sample weakly responding to environmental changes — k-038806 (bi = 0.23). The bi value is very close to 1 in Kotlassky cultivar, which shows a high ecological plasticity. Sample k-038806 has the lowest coefficient of linear regression (0.23), therefore, it is suitable for cultivation on unfertilized soils. The selected genetic sources will be used in breeding to develop highly productive cultivars of spring barley for the conditions of the European North of the Russian Federation.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2021;16(2):118-128
Differences in biological efficiency of one- and two-component graminicide on sugar beet crops in Tula region
Kryukova K.D., Gresis V.O.

One of the most urgent tasks in sugar beet production for Russia today is irregularities in cultivation technology and a low-efficiency crop protection. It leads to a high level of weed infestation of agricultural fields. Developing and identifying the most efficient, selective and accessible herbicides, which have low phytotoxicity, do not have a negative effect on soil chemical characteristics and can be used in sugar beet cultivation is relevant today. The aim of this study was to examine and compare biological efficiency of various doses and concentrations of one- and two-component graminicides on sugar beet crops against the following weeds: Cockspur grass — Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv., Wild millet — Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv. and Couch Grass — Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski. The experiment was conducted on the territory of the Tula region in 2020. The total field experiment area was 480 m2. Application of clethodim + quizalofop-P-ethyl (0.5 l/ha) resulted in reducing the number and weight of annual weeds by 64…71 %, reducing the number and weight of perennial weeds by 54…58 %, which had the same efficiency as clethodim (0.6 l/ha). The efficiency of clethodim + quizalofop-P-ethyl (1.0 l/ha) was higher than Clethodim (0.6 l/ha) and amounted to 73…87 % of reduction in the number of weeds compared to the control, but was lower than Clethodim (1.8 l/ha), which resulted in 89…95 % reduction in the number of weeds compared to the control. The highest sugar beet yields were obtained in the variants with clethodim (1.8 l/ha) and two-component herbicide (1 l/ha), which amounted to 28 and 25 % yield increase, in comparison with the control.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2021;16(2):129-136
Plant protection
Phylogenetic analysis and designing new primers for molecular identification of Drosophila suzukii
Naserzadeh Y., Bondarenko G.N., Kolesnikova E.V., Pakina E.N.

The family Drosophilidae includes over 3750 species worldwide and over 2000 of these are species of Drosophila. Spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii is one of the most dangerous species in this family. The insects live on undamaged ripening fruits, using its peculiar serrated ovipositor to break the skin of fresh ripening fruits and lay eggs in it. Drosophila species are very difficult and practically impossible to detect at larval stages. The present investigation was conducted at the All-Russian Plant Quarantine Center and Agrarian and Technological Institute of RUDN University, Moscow, Russia in 2018—2020. The aim of this study was to investigate the method of accurate and rapid identification of D. suzukii, and to design specific primer pairs for pest identification by Real-Time PCR method. The real-time quantitative PCR is a fast, sensitive, repeatable and accurate method for quantifying gene transcript levels. In this study, we designed specific primers (4.Dsuz.FRP) for Real-Time PCR to identify D. suzukii from other relative species. Although D. suzukii is absent in the Russian Federation and has not been reported so far, the project could be a precautionary measure.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2021;16(2):137-145
Agricultural technologies and land reclamation
Model of monitoring of oil soil pollution and its termination
Germanova S.E., Magdeeva T.V., Pliushchikov V.G.

The assessment of impact of oil production economic activities on land pollution in Russia contributes to evolutionary management decision making. Oil industrial pollution affects negatively flora and fauna. Thus, it’s important to identify the level of its exposure and danger, the site of contamination. A system approach is needed. When studying the environment, it’s necessary to consider the presence of risk situations and stochastic irreversible changes. It’s essential to identify the nature and type of soil contamination with petroleum products using high-tech tools, intellectual procedures. The work considers modeling of such situation, forecasting and identification of oil contaminants. The submodel of optimal termination of monitoring is also considered. Ending monitoring of environmental optimization will result in lower monitoring costs, since monitoring oilcontaminated environments is an expensive and complex technological mechanism, often requiring satellite data. The proposed algorithm for modeling and system analysis is based on situational modeling. Evolutionary modeling allows to adapt the procedure (methodology) of forecasting and assessment to environmental risk factors. It increases the accuracy (formalization and evidence) and completeness of conclusions, the efficiency of situation analysis, which affects manageability of risk both for the oil complex and for individual enterprise in the industry. The results of the research may be used for development of software tools, in particular expert and predictive systems. Situational models are needed when oil companies are solving multi-criteria and multifactor problems.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2021;16(2):146-153
Animal breeding
Using commercial enzyme immunoassay for measuring pregnancy-associated glycoproteins to diagnose pregnancy in dairy cows under field conditions in Algeria
Ayad A., Derbak H., Besseboua O.

The purpose of the present work was to study effectiveness for early pregnancy diagnosis in cattle of the new enzyme immunoassay (EIA) sandwich kit commercially available based on the measurement of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs). 120 Holstein-Friesian cattle of mixed age and parity were comprised from different dairy herds. The pregnant females (n = 68) were diagnosed by ultrasonography at day 35-40 after artificial insemination and confirmed by transrectal exploration at 2-3 months after AI. The non-pregnant females (n = 52) were housed in the absence of males during the experimental period. Blood samples were collected from coccygeal vessels of females into EDTA tubes. The serum was obtained by centrifugation and the serum was stored at - 20 °C until assay. The PAG concentrations in pregnant and non-pregnant females were determined in serum by EIA kit. The reproducibility inter- and intra-assay of the PAG-EIA is satisfactory (2.78 and 13.19 %, respectively). The accuracy (≥ 94.8 %) and the test of parallelism were largely acceptable. No cross-reaction was observed with the different hormones tested at different dilutions. PAG-EIA system gave 100 % sensitivity and negative predictive values. Whereas, specificity and positive predictive value were 91.93 and 71.15 %, respectively. The accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis by PAG-EIA was 87.5 %. In conclusion, the present study shows clearly that the EIA kit can be used to measure PAG in serum cows for the detection of gestation in Algeria. Therefore, this alternative technique could be recommended to replace the radioactive methods in immunoassays to improve the reproductive performances and an efficient tool for reproductive management of dairy cattle.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2021;16(2):154-166
Influence of grain physical characteristics on functional value of poultry feed
Polonskiy V.I., Sumina A.V.

The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the scientific literature concerning the influence of grain physical characteristics on functional value of poultry feed. The review considers the role of grain feed particle size and its shape in ensuring optimal development and functioning of digestive tract and increasing productivity of birds. The results showed that compared to the feeding with smaller particles, the use of coarse feed increased stomach weight in broilers, enhanced enzymatic degradation of feed in digestive tract and improved nutrient bioavailability. The study found that increase in the level of coarse corn in the diet increased the number of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacteria spp. beneficial bacteria in digestive tract. Meanwhile, number of opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms decreased. In birds which were given granular feed we found insufficient development of stomach, mainly due to the lack of mechanical stimulation. We assume that in order to improve stomach function and health of birds, it is necessary to apply a source of dietary fiber to their diet. The results of studies suggest that adding 2-3% of insoluble source of fiber to the routine diets of young chickens based on high-protein soy flour and corn can improve their digestive tract development and growth characteristics.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2021;16(2):167-175

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