Vol 13, No 2 (2018)

Crop production

Effect of humus preparations on chlorophyl content in leave and potato plant productivity on sandy soil in Moscow distric

Lyashko M.U., Tsvetkova U.V., Gressis V.O.


Results on evaluation of ‘effect of organic preparations LFSC-HA (Life Force Soil Conditioner Natural Humic Acids for soil fertility) and LFSC-HB (Life Force Soil Conditioner Humate Balance for soil enrichment) on productivity of potato plant of early maturing variety ‘arizina’. Two preparations have been provided by firm ‘Life Force Ltd (Moscow). A field experiment was carried out on a potato plantation of the firm ‘Agriko-Eurasia’ in Moscow district on sandy soil with low humus content. Organic preparations were applied in to soil by hand in powder form in 50 g/sq. m dosage. Reaction of potato plants on the experimental treatment was assessed by measurement of chlorophyll a and b content in potato leaves, and number and mass of tubes per plant at harvest. Positive effect of preparation used on chlorophyll content in leaves and number of tubes peer plant was found. Prevailing number of tubes of small sizes (less than 30 mm) - 38% may be considered as negative effect for early maturing variety. Number of tubes greater than 50 mm may be assigned to stimulative effect of organic preparation LFSC-HA on tube formation may and to additional amount of phosphorus and potassium containing in the preparation as well. Additional evaluation of organic preparation produced by Life Force Ltd are needed to separate positive effects of organic substances and additional amount of mineral elements in it. Having in mind positive effect tested preparations on formation of bigger number of tubes there it is advisable to carry out experiments with late maturing varieties.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2018;13(2):85-92
pages 85-92 views

Effect of soil treatment and bacterial fertilizers on the productivity of yarn barley

Chamurliev O.G., Chamurliev G.O., Feofilova L.A., Parpura D.I.


The article presents experimental data on the integrated influence of ways of the basic processing of soil and bacterial fertilizers “Azotovit” and “Fosfatovit” on agrophysical, water-physical soil indicators and productivity of barley. The use of planing treatments leads to compaction of the arable layer above the biological optimum and impaired soil aeration, therefore their application is possible without compromising the cultivation of spring barley. The influence of methods of primary tillage and application of mineral and bacterial fertilizers on barley water consumption and efficiency water production unit. Summarized long-term data on the productivity of spring barley on the learning options. The advantage of the double inclusion “Azotovit” and “Fosfatovit” in the background planing treatment at a depth of 0.20-0,22 m. the yield in this embodiment was 1.7 t/ha, which is higher than where were made only mineral fertilizers - 0,63 t/ha. A calculation of profits, the profitability of the technology of cultivation of spring barley and identified cost-effective version of the experience includes a two-fold introduction of bacterial fertilizers on the background of planing processing of soil to a depth of 0.20-0,22 m. the Margin amounted to 46.2%. On the basis of the conducted researches it is theoretically substantiated, experimentally confirmed and the findings and recommendations of the use of technology in the Volgograd region.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2018;13(2):93-102
pages 93-102 views

Research of influence of various methods of crops zhitnyaka on efficiency of the improved pastures in the arid zone of Northern Prikaspiya

Bulakhtina G.K., Kudryashov A.V., Kudryashova N.I., Tumanyan A.F., Terekhin A.A.


Article tells that experiment of crops of a Agropyrum for improvement of an unproductive pasture is made. Agropyrum - the most perspective fodder culture possessing steady harvests, high fodder advantages is steady against salty lands, durability, drought resistance and winter hardiness which is used for improvement of natural fodder grounds in arid regions of Russia. The sowed material - mix of three types Agropyrum: Siberian (Agropyrum Sibiricum, Willa), desert (Agropyrum desertozum, Figeh) and pectineal (Agropyrum pectiniforme, Sehuet), the pastures of the Astrakhan region collected on natural the sukhostepnykh. The purpose of researches - to study influence of sowing time (autumn, spring) and the directions of crops (the North-South, the West-East) of a Agropyrum on efficiency of a new pasture in arid conditions of Northern Prikaspiya. When carrying out researches popular methods of crops and a research of pastures have been used. Results of researches have shown: seeds of different types of a Agropyrum were similar on the weight and viability; at crops in the spring in the first year of life the most part of a new pasture was occupied by different herbs, and at autumn crops - the most part of a pasture was occupied Agropyrum; crops with the direction the West-East were optimum for development of herbs on a new pasture since the harvest at crops was more in the spring, than a crops harvest with the direction the North-South on 0,5 tons from 1 hectare, and at autumn sowing time - on 0,9 tons from 1 hectare (according to the second year of life of a Agropyrum); autumn sowing time - optimum for crops of a Agropyrum at restoration of arid pastures because the productivity of a new pasture (the second year of life of a Agropyrum) was higher, than at crops in the spring on 0,8 tons from 1 hectare (at the direction of crops the West-East) and on 0,4 tons from 1 hectare (North-South). Thus, at the first stage of long-term experience we have created new agronomical ecosystems - the improved arid pastures and have reached in two years of their higher efficiency in comparison with natural steppe ecosystems. At the following stages researches of stability of these agronomical ecosystems, including their longevity and maintaining efficiency are planned.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2018;13(2):103-112
pages 103-112 views

Landscape architecture and design

Prospects of use of ecosystem services for estimation of scenarios of urban development

Erokhova V.V., Vasenev V.I.


One of the main trends in changing existing land use is the urbanization process [2]. Since any change bears both positive aspects and negative aspects, an approach is needed to evaluate the various scenarios of this process. Advantages and advantages include the development of infrastructure and the emergence of various social organizations, the development of new projects for cultural leisure and recreation. To the problems of urbanization is the deterioration of the ecological characteristics of urbanized territories, the migration of the population becomes unregulated, the depletion of forest resources, the degradation of the fertility of soils and their functions in general. Anthropogenic impact on territories subject to land use change affects the benefits derived from ecosystems, namely ecosystem services. The main problem of changing the type of land use, and, as a consequence of the volume of ecosystem services, is the lack of a structured methodology for conducting research, in order to forecast such development scenarios that conserve and increase the benefits of ecosystems. This article provides an overview of the literature sources that reflect the problem posed, examines the main categories of ecosystem services, provides approaches to the assessment of soil characteristics from the point of view of ecosystem services, and suggests a methodology for assessing the example of the village of Ryzhovo, TiANAO, Moscow. The article provides the rationale for developing the principles of urban farming, based on the idea of which is the preservation and improvement of soil characteristics. Also, basic methods for assessing the various ecosystem services are applied, both in the overall assessment of services for urban areas and for assessing the land on which the construction of urban farming facilities is planned. The principle of the choice of territories for the organization of urban agriculture is shown, based on an analysis of existing urbanization trends.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2018;13(2):113-120
pages 113-120 views

Land management

Analysis of errors identified in the implementation and management of the real estate cadastre

Sinenko V.A., Volnova A.N., Pichuzhkina M.V., Shiyapov T.I.


One of the most common reasons for the suspension of the procedure for state cadastral registration, or state registration of rights to real estate are errors that are contained in the information of the real estate cadastre. The presence of errors in the Unified state register of real estate, including mistakes in title documents for real estate, is the basis for the suspension and refusal in the state cadastral registration and further registration of rights to real estate. In such circumstances, the applicant is compelled to prove violation of his rights. If there is an error in the information of the real estate cadastre regarding the real estate object, such errors are automatically exported to various databases and as a consequence lead to a large number of errors in the information of the real estate cadastre as well as various registers and cadastres. With the enactment of the Federal Law of 13.07.2015 No. 218 “On State registration of real estate” the procedure for correcting mistakes in the Unified state register of real estate has been substantially simplified. In their article, the authors analyze the current situation of the real estate cadastre databases and give examples of the most common in practice technical errors in the management and implementation of the real estate cadastre.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2018;13(2):121-130
pages 121-130 views

Morphology and ontogenesis of animals

Morphobiological features of buck lambs by using high protein extruded food

Chamurliev N.G., Mandzhieva M.V.


The development of internal organs and the morphological composition of carcasses of the sheep’s ox of Volgograd breeds when feeding them grain extruded forages with the use of dry beer pellets (EKKO-PD-SM) and pumpkin cake (EKKO-PC-SM) in combination with natural sulfur and methionine. Studies have established that sheep of experimental groups by the mass of internal organs were superior to the peers of the control group. Thus, the animals of the I and II-experimental groups had an advantage in comparison with the control peers: by weight of the leaked blood 9.24 and 11.54% (P ˂ 0.05); by weight of heart 12,41 and 16,47% (Р ˂ 0,05); by weight of lungs 8.60 and 11.34% (P ˂ 0.05); by weight of the liver 8,40 and 10,93% (Р ˂ 0,05); by weight of spleen 22,06 and 24,11% (Р ˂ 0,05) respectively. By the mass of the kidneys, there is no reliable difference in the compared groups, although the tendency of its increase in the animals of the experimental groups was noted. Buck lambs of I and II-experimental groups exceeded the control peer by weight of the stomach without contents by 8.04 and 10.57% (P ˂ 0.05), by weight of the small intestine by 9.07 and 12.29% (P ˂ 0.05), by weight of carcass (by 10.78-14.66%), by weight of pulp (by 17.19-22.81%), respectively.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2018;13(2):131-137
pages 131-137 views

Morphological and qualitative indicators of broiler cross of cockerels “Cobb 500”

Nikitchenko V.E., Nikitchenko D.V., Fedotov V.A., Egorov I.A., Egorova T.V.


The dynamics of live weight and the morphological composition of carcasses of broiler chickens “Cobb 500” at 1-, 21-, 28-, 33-, 38- and 42-day-old ages were studied. It was found that the increase in the average daily growth in broiler males is observed up to the 33-day age, on average they are 62.7 g, then up to 42 days - 85.56 g. The slaughter yield in 33-day broilers was 71.83%, 42 days - 73.12%. The carcass contains the most muscle tissue, from 994 g (33 day), or 65.57%, to 1410 g, or 66.95% (42 days). By the 42-day age of the males, the absolute mass of muscles is 178.26 times higher than the weight of the 1-day-old ones. The relative mass of bones in the carcasses of 33-day-old males is 20.32%, 42-day-olds - 16.52%. The anatomical cutting of the carcasses shows that the breast yield is 35.95-36.23%, the hips - 17.15-17.09%, the shins - 14.38-14.20%, the wings -11.15-10.68%. It is established that anatomically parts of the carcass differ in quality because of the different ratio of muscle tissue and bones in them.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2018;13(2):138-147
pages 138-147 views

Productivity of dairy cows and quality of milk-raw material with different cosmophysic activity

Nikishov A.A., Afanasiev V.A., Kostitsina E.A., Yelaine A.M.


The results of studies on the relationship between cosmophysical activity and animal productivity (the rhythm of milk yield of cows and the chemical composition of milk, the biochemical composition of raw milk) are presented. It was found that during the phase of growth of the activity of the Sun and the increase in the values of the Wolf index (sunspot) in the first half of the 24-year eleven-year cycle of solar activity, the average value of Wolf (sunspot) numbers varied from 0 to 100. For 2-3 years, at the lower peak of solar activity, and 2-3 years - at the top peak of activity, minimal and unreliable correlation relationships were observed. The most stable connections occur in the middle of an upswing or a decrease in solar activity. An increase in the relationship between the studied indicators was observed when the animals achieved maximum productivity. With an increase in milk yield from 7500 kg to 8500 kg, and further to 10,000 kg, the correlation coefficient was + 0.37, + 0.52 and + 0.64, respectively. The maximum influence of solar activity Wolf (sunspot) numbers) on the average productivity of one animal in the household is manifested at the peak of solar activity growth. It has been established that during the years of the rise of solar activity with low absolute values of Wolf (sunspot) numbers, low yields are more likely, and in high solar activity years, higher dairy values (record) are more likely. It was noted that all the components of milk decreased on days of increasing solar activity. The correlation coefficients for protein and milk fat content with Wolf (sunspot) numbers were r = -0.34 and r = -0.22, P ≥ 0.95. Correlation analysis revealed a reliable correlation of bacterial contamination and the number of somatic cells r = +0.28 and r = +0.31 (at P ≥ 0.95), respectively, with the Wolf (sunspot) numbers. In the collection milk, the negative correlation by fat content r = -0.12, density r = -0.18, acidity r = -0.17, protein content r = -0.19, sugar content r = -0.14, minerals r = -0.17 was observed with an increase in solar activity.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2018;13(2):148-158
pages 148-158 views

Veterinary science

Immunobiological and morphofunctional indicators with dysbacteriosis of the intestine of rabbits

Lenchenko E.M., Kondakova I.A., Lomova Y.V., Vatnikov Y.A., Voronina Y.Y.


The article presents results of research of dynamics of morphological, biochemical, haematological and immunological parameters when changing the quantity and species of microorganisms of intestinal microbiocenosis of the rabbits. With the dominance of pathogenic bacteria in rabbit intestinal microbiocenoses, the titer of bifidumbacteria was 10-5-10-4, a decrease in the number of lactobacilli, an increase in the number of enterobacteria, a correlation between the colonization index and the degree of adhesion of bacteria was revealed; an increase in the total number of leukocytes, lymphocytes, erythrocytes, hematocrit, alanine aminotransferase level, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, total bilirubin, α-amylase, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, T-killer level, NK cells, concentration of C-reactive protein. We observed a decrease in the concentration of hemoglobin, monocytes, total protein level, T-lymphocytes, T-helpers, B-lymphocytes, phagocytic index, phagocytic activity of leukocytes, NST-spontaneous, NST-stimulated. Dynamics of morphological indicators was characterized by a disorder of the circulation of organs, a predominance of dystrophic and necrotic processes in the tissues and organs of the cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, excretory system. Infiltration with mononuclear and segmented leukocytes was noted, diffuse lymphoid proliferation of the mucous membranes of the organs, hyperemia, edema, multiple hemorrhages, accumulation of hemorrhagic exudate in the lumen of the respiratory, digestive and urogenital tracts. Observed catarrhal-hemorrhagic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract; mucous membrane of the stomach, small and large intestines edematic, hyperemic, with hemorrhages, covered with mucus, fibrinous films, with necrotic areas. The signs of acute diffuse interstitial nephritis, characterized by proliferation of connective tissue cells with a predominance of lipoblast and epithelioid cells, are revealed. In the presence of bacterial cells in the lumen of the tubules, the parenchyma of the cortical and medullar layers was marked by microabscesses. Accidental transformation of the thymus was observed, characterized by signs of a circulatory disorder, a decrease in the area of the cortex, the formation of cysts; signs of diffuse hyperplasia of the spleen with necrobiotic changes in the foci of proliferation, reduction of the area of lymphoid follicles, expansion of the area occupied by the red pulp of follicles, hyperplasia of follicles of white pulp with foci of necrosis. Identified multiple bacterial embolism of blood vessels, developed signs of hemorrhagic Diathesis, watched the development of sign infiltrative itch processes.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2018;13(2):159-170
pages 159-170 views

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