Productivity of soybean varieties under different irrigation regimes

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Abstract


Abstract. World soybean acreage increases by 3 million hectares annually with average yield of 2.7 t/ha. Significant growth of soybean production in Russia is constrained by increased climate aridization and a declining yield of up to 1.5 t/ha. An important factor in intensification of soybean production is to expand its crops under irrigation. Introduction of adapted and high-yielding varieties of regional selection, followed by improvement of crop water supply, increases yields up to 3…4 t/ha. Soybean varieties selected by Russian Research Institute of Irrigated Agriculture and admitted to production in the Lower Volga region: VNIIOZ 86 (since 2002), VNIIOZ 31 (since 2011), Volgogradka 2 (since 2020) were studied. The experiments were conducted at Russian Research Institute of Irrigated Agriculture in 2013-2015. The experiment included two factors: factor A - varieties, factor B - irrigation regime (70-80-70 % of FMC, 80-80-70 % of FMC and control - 80-80-80 % of FMC). Plots of the 1st (600 m2) and 2nd (200 m2) order were sown in 4-fold replication by a wide-row method (0.7 m) in mid-May with a planned yield of 2.5…3.5 t/ha (N90P90K60 a. i./ha). Soybean varieties differed in peculiarities of crop structure formation. Differentiated irrigation regime resulted in more cost-efficient water consumption followed by yield increase compared to the control. The highest yields were formed by Volgogradka 2 variety (2.87…3.23 t/ha) and VNIIOZ 31 (2.82…3.19 t/ha), which was significantly higher than in VNIIOZ 86 variety (2.17…2.51 t/ha). The variable irrigation regime led to yield increase in all soybean varieties, especially in Volgogradka 2 - by 0.31…0.36 t/ha (10.8…12.5 %) as compared to the control. It was due to grain increase to 30.9…36.2 % in the total biomass compared to the control values - 26.6…27.5 %. The highest amount of post-harvest plant residues (stems, leaves and roots) remained after harvesting Volgogradka 2 (6.39…7.63 t/ha) and VNIIOZ 31(6.73…7.9 t/ha), which improved soil fertility well, and the smallest amount was after VNIIOZ 86 variety (4.41…5.66 t/ha). Differentiated irrigation regime led to decrease in vegetative mass in soil - 4.41…7.42 t/ha compared to the control (5.66…7.9 t/ha). Thus, Volgogradka 2 and VNIIOZ 31 can be recommended for irrigated agriculture in the Lower Volga region, as they provide high yields under differentiated (relatively cost-efficient) irrigation regime and improve soil fertility due to large biomass remained in soil after harvesting.


About the authors

Vladimir V. Tolokonnikov

Russian Research Institute of Irrigated Agriculture

Author for correspondence.
Email: tolokonnikov@vniioz.ru
9 Timiryazeva st., Volgograd, 400002, Russian Federation

Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Leading Researcher, Department of Intensive Technologies for Crop Cultivation

Galina P. Kancer

Russian Research Institute of Irrigated Agriculture

Email: vniioz@yandex.ru
9 Timiryazeva st., Volgograd, 400002, Russian Federation

Researcher, Department of Intensive Technologies for Crop Cultivation

Tatyana S. Koshkarova

V.S. Pustovoit Russian Research Institute of Oil Crops

Email: koshkarova_ts@vniioz.ru
17 Filatova st., Krasnodar, 350038, Russian Federation

Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Senior Researcher, Soy Department

Georgy O. Chamurliev

Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University)

Email: giorgostsamourlidis@mail.ru
6 Miklukho-Maklaya st., Moscow, 117198, Russian Federation

Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Senior Lecturer, Agrarian and Technological Institute

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Copyright (c) 2020 Tolokonnikov V.V., Kancer G.P., Koshkarova T.S., Chamurliev G.O.

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