Influence of manure application method on gray forest soil fertility, crop yield and quality

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Abstract


The article presents the results of field experiments on deepening the arable horizon of gray forest medium loamy soil to increase its fertility through applying organic fertilizer under PY-3-35 layer plow to a depth of 25…27 cm. Low mineralization of organic fertilizer during layer cultivation under oxygen deficiency conditions contributed to accumulation of humus in soil by 6.6 t/ha more than during conventional plowing, and by 7.5 t/ha - than during disking. It also improved water-physical and biological properties of soil: number of water-resistant aggregates increased by 4.6 and 5.3 %, soil density lowered by 0.03 and 0.04 g/cm3, number of earthworms increased by 3...6 individuals, expanded reproduction of fertility was provided, productivity of arable land increased by 7.0 and 6.7 % and crop quality increased compared to conventional plowing and disking, respectively. Deep manure incorporation extended life of organic fertilizer up to 5 years, while after conventional plowing and disking this process lasted only 2...3 years. It is not economically and environmentally beneficial, since frequent application requires a lot of fuel, and a large amount of harmful chemical compounds contained in combustion products is dumped into the environment.


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Table 1. The balance of nutrients in crop rotation (2008—2016)

Fertility element

Units

Manure incorporation method

PN-4-35, 20-22 cm

PYA-3-35, 25-27 cm

BDT-3, 15-18 cm

Nutrient intake from manure, crop-root residues and NPK

Humus output

t/ha

13.6

13.7

13.7

Nitrogen

kg/ha

1069

1127

1090

Phosphorus

kg/ha

750

782

781

Potassium

kg/ha

1115

1111

1110

Calcium

kg/ha

505

542

504

Magnesium

kg/ha

243

246

242

Crop nutrient removal

Humus output

t/ha

9.58

9.61

9.61

Nitrogen

kg/ha

1012

1068

1002

Phosphorus

kg/ha

715

754

716

Potassium

kg/ha

946

996

947

Calcium

kg/ha

495

532

495

Magnesium

kg/ha

305

323

300

Soil nutrient balance

Humus output

t/ha

4.02

4.09

4.09

Nitrogen

kg/ha

57.0

59

88

Phosphorus

kg/ha

35.0

28

65.0

Potassium

kg/ha

169

115

16.

Calcium

kg/ha

10.0

10.0

9.0

Magnesium

kg/ha

–62.0

–77.0

–58.0

 

Table 2. Changes in soil fertility depending on manure application method

No.
 p / p

Soil parameter

Year

PN­4­33
(20­-22 cm)

PY­3­35
(25-­27 cm)

BDT­3
(15-18 cm)

1

Exchange acidity

(рНКСl)

2007

6.08

6.05

6,08

2008

6.10

6.08

6,10

2016

6.15

6.18

6,11

2

N­NO3, mg/kg

2007

17.3

17.4

17,1

2008

17.9

18.1

18,0

2016

21.7

23.6

21,9

3

P2O5, mg/kg

2007

160

161

166

2008

172

168

174

2016

180

210

189

4

K2O, mg/kg

2007

161

160

158

2008

172

183

176

2016

186

208

184

5

Total absorbed bases, mEq/100 g

2007

18.3

18.7

18,8

2008

20.6

22.0

20,2

2016

23.0

25.3

21,8

6

Humus, %

2007

2.81

2.83

2,80

2008

2.84

2.87

2,85

2016

3.01

3.20

2,99

Humus growth, %, (t / ha)

0,2 (7,8)

0.37 (14.4)

0.19 (6.9)

Note. 2007 — leveling crops of oats (source data).

 

Table 3. Grain yield and quality depending on manure application method (2008—2016)

Variant

Yield,

 t/ha

Crude

 protein, %

Gluten,%

Starch, %

Total  nitrogen, %

К20, %

Р2О5, %

 

 

Winter wheat after full fallow

 

 

1

4.35

12.2

28.2

56.2

2.45

0.52

0.54

2

4.56

13.6

31.2

59.0

2.58

0.53

0.59

3

4.36

12.3

29.4

56.3

2.41

0.52

0.54

LSD05

0.16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Winter wheat after perennial grasses

 

 

1

4.43

14.9

36.4

54.8

2.28

0.46

0.57

2

4.59

15.4

37.6

56.3

2.31

0.50

0.60

3

4.41

14.9

36.2

54.3

2.18

0.47

0.57

LSD05

0.14

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spring wheat

 

 

1

3.23

14.9

36.4

54.8

2.28

0.46

0.57

2

3.58

15.4

37.6

56.3

2.31

0.50

0.60

3

3.15

14.9

36.2

54.3

2.18

0.47

0.57

LSD05

0.13

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spring barley

 

 

1

3.42

13.4

3.68*

60.0

2.15

0.78

0.92

2

3.67

14.2

3.64 *

63.0

2.23

0.95

0.94

3

3.10

13.3

3.67 *

59.0

2.09

0.77

0.90

LSD05

0.15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oats

 

 

1

3.85

12.8

28.2

40.1

2.37

0.67

0.55

2

4.65

14.3

30.9

43.9

2.44

0.74

0.59

3

4.46

13.2

29.8

42.6

2.43

0.68

0.57

LSD05

0.14

 

 

 

 

 

 

Note. 1— PN-4-35 at 20…22 cm, 100 t/ha; 2 — PY-3-35 at 25…27 cm; 3 — BDT-3 at 15…18 cm; * — fiber content.

About the authors

Ivan Grigoryevich Meltsaev

Ivanovo Research Institute of Agriculture - branch of Upper Volga Federal Agrarian Research Center

Author for correspondence.
Email: ivniicx@mail.ru
2 Tsentralnaya st., Bogorodskoe village, Ivanovo district, Ivanovo region, 153506, Rusian Federation

Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor, leading researcher, Department of feed production and Agrochemistry

Sabir Tyumenbegovich Esedullaev

Ivanovo Research Institute of Agriculture - branch of Upper Volga Federal Agrarian Research Center

Email: ivniicx@mail.ru
2 Tsentralnaya st., Bogorodskoe village, Ivanovo district, Ivanovo region, 153506, Rusian Federation

Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor, Director

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