Vol 12, No 4 (2017)

Articles
INFLUENCE OF SOIL AND MINERAL FOOD PROCESSING ON THE DYNAMICS OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY AND NPK IN COLD YARNS
Mikitin S.V., Shuravilin A.V., Borodychev V.V., Novikov A.E.
Abstract

The use of scientifically based doses of fertilizers in the cultivation of crops does not lead to the removal of nutrients from the natural reserves of the organic and mineral soil by microflora. At the same time, the methods and terms for the introduction of mineral fertilizers must be linked with the technology of soil preparation and moisture supply. Nitrogen fertilizers, because of their rapid volati-lization, are recommended to be applied for pre-sowing cultivation with sealing in the surface layer, and phosphorous fertilizers, as inactive - along with the main soil treatment. In this connection, in studies of the significant influence of the methods of basic soil cultivation with and without application of nitrogen, its dynamics along layers are not revealed. Deep soil-free tillage allows significantly more accumulation and longer storage of moisture in the soil layers; In comparison with the classical plowing and dumping plowing and planing in a meter layer of soil, the additional moisture reserves before sowing the crop are respectively 300 and 230 m3 / ha, in the tubing phase - barley - 256 and 189 m3/ha, in the phase of milk ripeness - 270 And 128 m3/ha. Deficiency of moisture reduces the biological activity of the soil, in this regard, moisture-saving methods of basic soil cultivation are especially important in conditions of rain-fed farming, not only on the yield of agricultural crops, but also on the processes of humus formation. The total accumulation of amino acids in the half-meter layer in the variant with deep soil-free tillage before sowing barley was 424 μg amine / G of cloth, in the phase of tubing - ear - 400 μg amine / G canvas, in the phase of milk ripeness - 210 μg amine / G of canvas. The values obtained are higher in comparison with the control data and the variant with planar tillage at 7 and 18%, 48 and 32%, 10 and 36% respectively. Positive dynamics in terms of productive moisture and accumulation of amino acids in the variant with deep soil-free soil treatment, application of calculated phosphorus doses for main processing and nitrogen for pre-sowing cultivation, had an effect on a significant increase in grain relative to control at 0.4 t/ha, Processing - at 0.35 t/ha.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2017;12(4):295-304
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INCREASE OF CUCUMBER PRODUCTIVITY IN OPEN FIELD IN THE LOWER VOLGA REGION
Tumanyan A.F., Silla K., Shcherbakova N.A., Bondarenko A.N., Terekhin A.A.
Abstract

The most effective methods of cucumber yield increasing are growth regulators and mineral fertilizers applications, which are important in arid conditions of the Lower Volga region. The field experiments were carried out in Caspian scientific research institute of arid agriculture, Astrakhan region, Chernoyarsky district in 2014-2016. The purpose of the study was to study fertilizers and growth regulators influence on productivity of cucumber grown in light chestnut soils with drip irrigation. On the whole, fertilizers and growth regulators application increased cucumber yield. The highest yield was obtained in hybrid ‘Russky stil F1’ in variants N110P105K75 + Megafol (136.5 t/ha) and N110P105K75 + Vitazim (96.3 t/ha), so yield increase was 84.9 t/ha and 44.7 t/ha, respectively. On, for all hybrids, average mass per plant increased by 378.7 g in variant N110P105K75, in variant N110P105K75 + Vitazim - by 842.2 g, in variant N110P105K75 + Megafol - by 1013.9 g. Cucumber yield in all hybrids on average increased by 14.5 t/ha in variant N110P105K75, by 27.0 t/ha in variant N110P105K75 + Vitazim, by 35.3 t/ha in variant N110P105K75 + Megafol. According to the results, application of fertilizers in the dose of N110P105K75 and leaf treatments with growth regulators Megafol or Vitazim increased cucumber productivity and yield reached more than 100.0 t/ha in the open field under drip irrigation. The profitability amounted to 134.1-159.3% and payback was 2.34-2.59 rub/rub.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2017;12(4):305-311
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MORPHOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF BITTER ALMONDS (PRUNUS AMYGDALUS) TO NITROGEN NANO-FERTILIZER IN EARLY STAGES OF GROWTH
Badran A., Savin I.Y.
Abstract
The use of large quantities of chemical fertilizers caused in many harmful to humans, animals and the environment. Adding to that, the difficulty of using nitrogen fertilizers especially urea and loss a large amount of it in sandy soil (70%) by leaching. In the other side, using of nano-particles and nano-powders, can produce controlled or delayed releasing fertilizers. This strategy could be reduced leaching of fertilizers as the release occurs gradually and continuously. Hence, this experiment was conducted to study the effect of nano-fertilizer on morphological response of bitter almond rootstock at germination period and the first stages of growth compared to other chemicals fertilizers. The nuts were soaked in dis-tilled water for 48 hours. Subsequently, the seeds were sown in perlite and treated with different concen-trations of nano-fertilizer, urea and ammonium sulfate at 0%, 25%, 50% and 100% for each, then stratified at 6 C for 8 weeks. After cold stratification, non-germinated seeds were exposed to 22 C for three weeks to promote germination. Germinated seeds were sown in pots with a mixture of peat and perlite. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design in factorial experiment with 3 repli-cates and 25 seeds for each replicate. The results revealed that, nano-fertilizer affected significantly on seed germination and first stages of bitter almond growth. Whereas, pre-treating seeds of bitter almond rootstock with 50% of nano-fertilizer positively increased germination measurements; germination per-centage, germination rate and index due to enhancing the amount of water that penetrates inside the seeds during the germination period which in turn improved the biological activity of stored food thus in-duced embryo to germinated early. Added to that, nano-fertilizer markedly increased stem length and diameter with producing stronger seedlings which had the tallest and deepest underground parts as well as length of primary and secondary roots/plant and number of secondary roots/plant. It can be attributed to that; nano-fertilizers are available for absorption and can provide all nutrients that required for plant growth throughout its slow release of fertilizer therefore reduce nitrogen fertilizer lost by leaching and elevate nitrogen utilization efficiency by plant comparing to other nitrogen fertilizers that are lost about 70% of its nitrogen content by leaching.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2017;12(4):312-322
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SHORT PEPTIDES REGULATE THE GROW OF CALLUS CULTURE TOBACCO NICOTIANA TABACUM L
Dilovarova T.A., Smesova S.V., Baranova E.N., Fedoreyeva L.I.
Abstract

Phytohormones, which are secreted peptides, play an important role in intercellular inter-actions, participating in the regulation of development and in numerous physiological processes and in responses to the influence of environmental factors. Short peptides in a concentration of 10-7-10-8 M regulate the growth and development of the callus culture of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) in culture in vitro. AlaGluAspGly, AlaAspGluLeu, GlyGly and GlyAsp on the 28th day of cultivation showed an increase in the biomass of tobacco by a factor of 1.5 to 2.5, an increase in the number of regenerants per explant by 10-30%, and also the area of the leaf plate of regenerants by 2-2.5 times. Exogenous peptides influence the expression of genes encoding the proteins of growth factor regulators. It was found that the expression values calculated by the PCR-PB method depend on the nature of the peptide. In addition, structurally different peptides differentially affect the different genes (growth regulating factor) of GRF. The greatest increase in the expression level of GRF family genes is observed in the presence of AlaAspGluLeu - GRF1, GRF3, GRF4 3.5-4 times, in the presence of AlaGluAspGly - GRF2 more than 4.5 times, GlyGly - GRF4 more than 3 times, GlyAsp - GRF3, GRF4 in 3-4 times. It is assumed that in the cell culture, short peptides can act as a regulator of the growth of new generation plants that can find application in biotechnology and practical plant growing.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2017;12(4):323-331
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POSSIBILITIES OF DETECTING OF SOILS OF BENIN BASED ON LANDSAT SATELLITE IMAGES
Kakpo R., Savin I.Y.
Abstract

An analysis of the possibility of using Landsat satellite data for the recognition of the most widespread soils of Benin was made. It was found that it is impossible to detect all the soils depicted on the soil map based on Landsat satellite images for the research area. More accurately, the soils developed on identical soil-forming rocks are distinguished. The revealed features of the grouping of soils by image tone characteristics are most likely due to the specific properties of the soil surface, and also to the type of vegetation growing on them. The found specifics of soil detection can be used to adjust the soil map of Benin, as well as to organize satellite monitoring of soils of the Benin Republic.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2017;12(4):332-340
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REGULATION OF THE WATER REGIME OF PEAT EARTH MECHANICAL LOW-DIRECTION BY SCALING
Poddubsky A.A., Zakharova O.A., Evsenkin K.N., Shuravilin A.V.
Abstract

On peatlands annually in sunny weather there is a drying and self-ignition of the upper layer due to the cessation of the flow of groundwater during the rupture of the capillary rim and the violation of the water-lifting capacity. On drained peat soils, groundwater plays a major role in the fire-fighting plan and water and mineral nutrition of plants. One of the ways to maintain groundwater at the optimal level is the sluicing. It is most effective at groundwater objects, in the presence of well permeable soils. In this case, moistened land has a slight bias and when it is possible to supply water to the soil in the required quantities to cover the costs of evaporation, transpiration. At the same time, many issues related to the regulation of the water regime of peat soils by flooding remain unexplored, so the topic of our research is relevant and of great importance for the subsequent agricultural use of these soils. The aim of the work is to study the water regime of peat soils in the Mescher lowland and the scientific justification for its regulation by sluicing. Full-scale field experiment was carried out on peat soils of the Meshcherskaya lowland in the Polkovo collective farm of the Ryazan region of the Ryazan region in 2012-2016. With options for standard dehumidification, sluicing 0.5 m and 0.8 m. The control was a site on a low marsh. The methods of research and technology of cultivating annual grasses (vetch-oat mixture on green forage) are generally accepted. To more accurately describe the processes of locks, the characteristics of soil mois-ture, the assessment of changes in water balance items in the model, thermodynamic and geosystemic (landscape) approaches are used. We used the mathematical model of moisture transfer “Shlyuzovanie”, developed by A.I. Golovanov and Yu.I. Sukharev with the introduction into it of the terrain of the pilot site. In our forecast calculations, the depth of the systematic drains was assumed to be 1.0 ... 1.2 m, the en-closing network (trap drains) was assigned within the limits of 1.2 ... 1.4 m. We established that the results depend on the variant of sluicing, weather conditions, regular A decrease in the depth of groundwater and an increase in peat moisture with rising levels in canals. It was found that when the water level in the canal is raised to 0.8 m and up to 0.5 m from the edge, the depth of groundwater decreases from 0.85 to 0.58 m, and the humidity in the 0 ... 25 cm layer increases from 63 to 74% Porosity. Shlyuvanie with rising water level in the canals to 0.5 m provides sufficient fire-fighting humidity, but is associated with a significant water consumption - almost twice as large and with a marked decrease in the productivity of crops - up to 25% than with a slip of 0.8 m. As a result Five-year field experiments, the processes of sluicing of the dried peat bog in fire-fighting purposes have been studied and it is established that, as applied to the conditions of the experimental plot, the rise in the water level in the channel to a depth of 0.40 m from the edge provides the moisture of the upper layer fyanika in the dry period of about 0.59 share porosity, that is fire safety. For the climatic conditions of the Meshcherskaya lowland, a “soft” sluice with a rise in the water level in the canals to 0.8 m from the surface of the earth proved to be sufficient in the fire resistance.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2017;12(4):341-349
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MICROBIOLOGICAL MONITORING OF COMMERCIAL POULTRY MEAT SEMI-FINISHED PRODUCTS
Abdullaeva A.M., Seryogin I.G., Nikitchenko V.E.
Abstract

Materials on microbiological studies of semifinished products from poultry meat (fillets, minced meat, mechanically deboned meat), made in real time in 2016-2017 are presented. Microbiological indicators of semi-finished products of various manufacturers in different seasons of the year are determined. It was revealed that 19-23% of realized avian poultry semi-finished products had increased QMAFAnM, CFU/g, while bacteria of E. coli group were isolated in 12-28% of samples, in 3-10% of samples - Salmonella bacteria, 5-14% - bacteria of genus Pseudomonas, in 12-36% - microorganisms of coccal forms, in 7-26% - clostridia, in 15-17% - lactobacillus bacteria, in 9-37% - bacteria of the genus Proteus. In some samples of semifinished products found spores molds and yeast cells. Listeria monocyto-genes in the investigated semifinished products did not reveal. The most contaminated microorganisms were minced meat and meat de-boning broilers and turkeys, compared with samples of chicken fillets. In meat raw materials having microbial contamination above 1 · 106 CFU/g, changes in organoleptic and physicochemical parameters were noted. Based on the data obtained, proposals have been developed to reduce microbial contamination of semi-finished products and recommendations for the most rational use of poultry meat for food or fodder purposes.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2017;12(4):350-358
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ETIOLOGICAL STRUCTURE AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSTICS OF SALMONELLOSIS OF BIRDS
Lenchenko E.M., Khay P.V., Vatnikov Y.A., Medvedev I.N., Gavrilov V.A.
Abstract

The article presents the results of a study of the etiological structure and differential diag-nostic signs of avian salmonellosis. When identifying bacteria isolated from 128 blood samples of chickens with the use of rapid test "Salmonella latex kit" established the dominance of cultures of the microorganisms Salmonella spp. - of 10.94% (14 samples); 10 strains (71,43%) were attributed to Salmonella gallinarum, 4 (of 28.57%) to Salmonella pullorum. The overall level of resistance of Salmonella to ampicillin - 57,58%; tetracycline - 60,61%; streptomycin - 66,67%; had to 57,58%; 60,61% and 66,67% are sensitivity to norfloxacin amounted to 69,70%, to ceftazidime - 78,79%, enrofloxacin - 57,58%, ciprofloxacin - 69,70% of the tested strains. At postmortem examination the most frequently detected signs of pericarditis, hemorrhagic pneumonia, aeroscout, catarrhal-hemorrhagic enteritis, perihepatitis, hyperplasia of the spleen. The most frequently detected signs of pericarditis, aeroscout, catarrhal-hemorrhagic gastroenterocolitis, perihepatitis, inflam-mation of the ovaries, hyperplasia of the spleen. Revealed signs of congestive hyperemia, macrophage reaction, hyperplasia and plasmocytomas of lymphocyte transformation, increase the permeability of microcirculatory vessels, lymphoid-cellular infil-tration of loose fibrous connective tissue, perivascular oedema, disseminated thrombosis, proliferation of lymphocytes from lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and pancreas. In violation of the porosity of the blood vessels of serous membranes of organs were observed extensive serous oedema, the output of the formed elements of blood and the loss of fibrinogen.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2017;12(4):359-367
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MORBIDITY OF CATTLE WITH ANTHRAX IN THE REPUBLIC OF CHAD
Yamtitina M.N., Antipas B.B., Makarov V.V.
Abstract

The unfavorable situation of epizootic anthrax in the Republic of Tchad plays a horrendous role marked with enormously negative impacts on the growth of livestock-breeding (animal husbandry) sec-tor. As a matter-of-fact, a wide variety of animals fall prey to this endemic ailment annually, especially cattle. The most practiced form of ranging in Tchad entails cattle breeding which involves the transmutations of breeds. Owing to the paucity of comprehensive frameworks designed to circumvent and arrest unintended repercussions in the administration of such a practice, the practice is susceptible to a plethora of errors that in turn facilitate epizootic processes, including epizootics of anthrax. More often than not, it is trans-mitted from one region of the country to the other. Subsequently, this endangers all other animal husbandry systems and subjects to grave danger people’s lives as well. The epizootic process is a spatial-temporal form of interaction between the population of the parasite and the host population. Nevertheless, the epi-zootic process is subject to influence exerted by the animal husbandry system, i.e. conditions, methods or means of keeping animals in a particular area. In this article is presented the statistics of affected beasts (cattle) in terms of population and these statistics are illustrated with the aid of tables and graphs.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2017;12(4):368-373
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