Vol 12, No 1 (2017)

Crop production
Non-destructive methods of diagnostics of nitrogen provision of plants by optoelectronic system of plants monitoring
Vvedenskaya A.V., Vvedenskiy V.V., Gins M.S., Khorokhorov A.M.
Abstract

The article is devoted to solving actual scientific-technical and economic challenges - development of non-destructive method of diagnostics of the domestic varieties of plants, implemented by appropriate optoelectronic system. Substantiated general method [1] of the spectral analysis of the pigment composition of photosynthetic vegetation unit. Proved dependence of concentration of mineral substances in a plant from the pigment composition of photosynthetic vegetation unit. The character of the link between the nitrogen provision status of plants, depending of the spectral reflectance curves and of the value of the main vegetative index of the method - NDVI. Experimentally obtained the dependence of the spectral reflectance index of photosynthetic unit of vegetation from the concentrations of nitrogen fertilizers in the soil for selected plant species. During experimental studies confirmed the theoretical position on the possibility of using non-destructive optical methods for determining nitrogen provision of plants. To implement the proposed method is selected optoelectronic monitoring system according to the level of development of agricultural machinery.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2017;12(1):7-16
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Dynamics of the density of lawn grass and herbage on loamy and sandy soils
Poddubsky A.A., Lazareva T.S., Mazayskiy Y.A., Piven E.A.
Abstract
Conducted research on the dynamics of the density of single-species and mixed grass crops on sod-podzolic soils of the Ryazan region. The estimation of the density of turf grass stands in the years 2012-2014 studies found that the highest density had a single-species crops: Kentucky bluegrass, red fescue, bent grass selenobrachys, and among mixed crops - a three-component grass mixture (red fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, bent grass selenobrachys) and four-component mixture (selenobrachys bent grass, red fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, red fescue). The lowest density of planting was installed at the perennial ryegrass in the second and third years and three-component grass mixture (red fescue, sheep's fescue, perennial ryegrass) in the third year of life of grass. The trend of higher density turf grass stands revealed in experiment 1 for loamy soils compared to sandy loam.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2017;12(1):17-24
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Risk management in agriculture
Development concept and methodology of protection of agricultural production from natural disasters and emergencies in the technogenesis era
Plyushchikov V.G., Khairova N.I.
Abstract
Analysis and evaluation of the impact of natural disasters and emergencies on the development of agricultural production in Russia, epizootic and phytosanitary conditions in areas of agricultural production in 2015. The organization of protective measures in agribusiness by natural disasters and emergencies.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2017;12(1):25-32
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Methodical grounds of monitoring of the agricultural organizations, having in its composition of potential sources of accidents and disasters
Pluyschikov V.G., Avdotin V.P., Avdotina J.S., Kovan S.E.
Abstract
The article presents a methodological framework developed by the authors with the aim of developing methods of forecasting, prevention of emergency situations (es), and also increase of stability of functioning of the organizations of the Ministry of agriculture of Russia, having in composition the existing object predstavlyayushie danger, and aims to increase the efficiency of state control over security. The unsatisfactory financial position of ogranicheniyami, having in its composition of potentially dangerous objects, is an additional risk factor man-made disaster that needs to be considered when conducting security control. The purpose of financial monitoring is to determine associations with increased risk of occurrence of accidents on the basis of objective assessment of their financial and economic state that will allow timely monitoring of inspections by the state Supervisory authorities in advance and to take the necessary preventive measures.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2017;12(1):33-46
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Land management
Field research of total stations
Kevorkov I.A., Parpura D.I., Kurmachev R.D., Priymenko A.O., Galstyan A.M.
Abstract
This article presents the results of field research of two total stations (the park of geodetic instruments of the experimentally-technological laboratory of remote sensing and land resources monitoring of the Agrarian Technological Institute of the RUDN University. This article was written based on the research practices which the authors were in the Scientific and Educational Center of the Agrarian Technological Institute of the RUDN University. Electronic total stations, along with the receivers of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) currently is one of the most popular tools for the production of topographic and geodetic works. One of the important requirements of users for these surveying instruments - the accuracy of the measurement, which determines the accuracy of determining the coordinates of the turning points and the land area. The studies were conducted at a specialized reference geodetic network, authorized to carry out such tests, and is a benchmark tool for metrological certification of surveying instruments. For testing were chosen total stations that are most in demand in the production of topographic and cadastral surveys. The studies included a comparative analysis of the length and height of the reference sections of a linear basis, the measured electronic total stations; comparing passport data accuracy performance total station with the actual values obtained from measurements on the reference basis; Comparative analysis of the results of measurements of the lengths of sections and elevations of the reference line basis, with the reference values. The results of field studies have shown that the actual accuracy of the measurements performed by the subjects geodetic instruments generally corresponds to the values indicated in their passport characteristics. This led to the conclusion of the suitability of total stations for precise positioning required for receipt of geospatial data ensuring land surveying and cadastral works. Analysis of the results of geodetic measurements of the reference base segments showed the discrepancy between the increase of the increase of the measured distance. Fixed deterioration of the measurement accuracy in areas where there may be potentially interfere with the precision-guided sighting axis on the reflector.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2017;12(1):47-57
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Soil science and agrochemistry
Development zakustarennyh land by results of modeling in lysimeters
Adiko Y.O., Semenov N.A., Shuravilin A.V.
Abstract
Powered results of experiments on the effect of lysimetric plowing tree and shrub biomass in the sod-podzolic medium loamy soil on yield, nutrients concentration and accumulation of biochemicals substances in aboveground mass sowns grasses fourth to seventh year of use. Studied the formation of productivity of perennial grasses, the loss of nutrients - nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium on the disapprove background and minerals fertilizers depending on the plowed biomass. The dynamics of the yield, the concentration of nutrients of plant nutrition (NPKCa) and their accumulation in the aboveground part of the sown cereal grass as for years, and an average of four years of research in natural fertility and minerals fertilizers. A comparative assessment of the yield, nutrients and biochemicals sown cereal disapproved herbage, compared with the control (arable land), which pointed to a significant shortfall in crop yields in versions with embedded biomass (shoots of willow, melkoles birch and aspen), an average of 15-20%. On fertilized sown cereal herbage compared with disapprove background herbs yield increased as the plow, and in making biomass - from 35 to 70%. The most optimals conditions for nitrogen absorption grasses over years and an average of 4 years, created when terminating bush aspen.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2017;12(1):58-65
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Botany
Ontogenic spectrum of coenopopulations as indicator of species strategy under anthropogenic stress (on the example rare and protected plants of the natural and historical park “Bitsevsky forest”)
Istomina I.I., Pavlova M.E., Terechin A.A.
Abstract
The authors investigated the structure of populations of rare and protected species included in the Red book of Moscow and Moscow region, in connection with the influence of increasing anthropogenic loads in the forest zone of the city of Moscow. For the first time in the Bitsa forest Park based on the features of ontomorphogenesis of species such as the Sanicula europaea L., Convallaria majalis L., Polygonatum multiflorum (L.) All., Coridalis intermedia (L.) Merat . described and analyzed the age structure of their populations. Comparing the structure of populations of protected species, the authors showed the existence of different strategies of these species under conditions of anthropogenic stress.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2017;12(1):66-75
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Veterinary sanitary inspection
Microbiological nutrient media the new format in the veterinary-sanitary assessment food and raw materials of animal origin
Egorova I.Y., Nikitchenko V.E., Nikitchenko D.V., Chernysheva A.N., Rystsova E.O.
Abstract
The main task of veterinary-sanitary examination is to prevent infectious and parasitic diseases that spread among humans and animals through food, feed and industrial products of animal and vegetable origin. This is very important conduct microbiological raw material quality control, food production and disinfection measures carried out, aimed at the reorganization of the production environment. In this connection, development of methods acquires relevance rapid microbiological analysis to identify organisms of sanitary illustrative and other pathogens in a variety of materials. The aim of this work is the comparative study of the effectiveness of the practical use of classical bacteriological culture media and nutrient media of a new format in the veterinary and sanitary evaluation of food and animal feed. As part of this work the traditional media (agar Baird-Parker) and culture media of the new format - 3M™ Petrifilm™ Staph Express Count Plate (STX) were subjected to comparative study in terms of sensitivity and the time required to identify cells S. aureus . The procedures described in ISO 31746-2012 and MUK 42.2884-11 were taken as research algorithms. For the purity of the experiment using artificially contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus cells of the raw milk of cows. 3M™ Petrifilm™ Staph Express Count Plate (STX) may be used in the food industry and regulatory authorities in monitoring to obtain objective information on the contamination of raw materials and food products dangerous pathogens in a very short period of time. This in turn is necessary for the removal of low-quality products from the retail network and avoid poor-quality raw materials to produce products without heat obrabotku. Takzhe it should be noted that due to the simplicity of seeding procedure there is no need for qualified personnel at the stage of sowing and the initial evaluation results. Also achieved significant savings in time, consumables and media at the stage of the primary planting material using the 3M™ Petrifilm™.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2017;12(1):76-85
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Improving of veterinary and sanitary control of milk from large dairy processing companies
Seregin I.G., Nikitchenko D.V., Korolyova L.G., Snoz G.V.
Abstract
The article presents the results of comparative studies of quality and safety of milk by test-kits and instrumentation control, enabling the identification of timely and effective in collecting content mastitis in raw milk and the presence of antibiotics, as well as its contamination by microorganisms. The test was established on a large dairy company “Danone industry” and revealed the contents of mastitis in milk 2,72-5,96%, the presence of antibiotics - to 12,39-17,48% and increased contamination by microorganisms in 12,50% of the investigated parties. In the study of the milk by test systems and devices produced results that correspond to those of conventional methods. The use of raw milk monitoring express methods when applying for processing reduces the time of production of veterinary and sanitary control and discard the parties of raw milk which do not meet the requirements of regulatory documents.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2017;12(1):86-92
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Articles
Our authors
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Abstract
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2017;12(1):93-95
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