Vol 15, No 3 (2020)

Morphology and biochemistry of plants
Cytokinetic and anatomical analysis of Thellungiella botschantzevii meristem cells in high concentrations of NaCl and Na2SO4
Kononenko N.V., Leonova T.G., Chaban I.A.

The study of cytokinetic and anatomical properties of the extramophile plant Thellungiella botschantzevii (German) at high concentrations of NaCl and Na2SO4 and without them (control) allowed to identify structural and functional transformations at the cellular level and evaluate the effect of salinity. Cytophotometric method showed the accumulation of cells in the root meristem in G1 and S stages, which indicated the adaptation of Thellungiella botschantzevii to high concentrations of NaCl and Na2SO4. A high level of ploidy (up to 16C) and the maximum number of polyploid cells at the level of 4C and 8C gave the plant stability. Anatomical characteristics of Thellungiella botschantzevii root and leaf were obtained on semi-thin and ultra-thin sections, and accumulation of lipid and protein inclusions in the root cell was determined. The data obtained indicate that Thellungiella botschantzevii is a unique model for various kinds of research, including genetic research, and can help to develop proposals for increasing resistance in crops.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2020;15(3):231-241
Antioxidant contents in potato cultivars from the collection of Russian Potato Research Center
Gins E.M., Moskalev E.A., Polivanova O.B., Mityushkin A.V., Simakov E.A.

Antioxidants protect not only plants, but also humans from oxidative stress. Plant antioxidants include phenolic compounds: phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and vitamin C. Potatoes are one of the most consumed crops in the world and can serve as a promising source of antioxidants in the human diet. The aim of the study was to compare secondary low-molecular-weight antioxidants (ascorbic acid, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, total antioxidant content) in 15 cultivars of potatoes with pigmented and white pulp ( Solanum tuberosum L.) to identify genotypes having increased antioxidant activity. The research was conducted in 2019, a week after harvesting. Plants were grown on sod-podzolic soils in the fields of Federal Scientific Vegetable Center. Analysis of the total content of soluble phenolic compounds showed that almost all the studied varieties contained significantly more phenolic compounds in the skin than in the pulp. The maximum level of phenolic compounds was found in Monarkh (purple pulp) and Vympel (light yellow pulp) - 69.33 mg/100 g and 67.93 mg/100 g of fresh mass, respectively. The highest amount of flavonoids was observed in Zhukovsky ranniy (white pulp) and Tayfun (white pulp) - 12.49 mg/100 g and 11.06 mg/100 g of fresh mass, respectively. The highest content of ascorbic acid was determined in Gala (dark yellow pulp) - 15.84, Golubizna (white pulp) and Red Scarlett (yellow pulp) - 14.08 mg%. The maximum total content of hydrophobic antioxidants was found in Zhukovsky ranniy (white pulp) - 0.38 mg. eq. HA/g and Red Scarlett (yellow pulp) - 0.37 mg. eq. HA/g.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2020;15(3):242-252
Crop production
Agroecological study of garden carrot cultivars from collection of Vavilov institute
Zaitseva N.A., Tumanyan A.F., Seliverstova A.P.

Carrots are one of the most important root crops in the world. Due to such qualities as plasticity and relative non-wholesome cultivation, carrots are cultivated in most countries of the world. Carrot roots are a valuable source of vitamins A, B, B2, B6, B12, C, RR, E, R. Agroecological conditions of the region allow to cultivate carrots in the open ground. Astrakhan region is not yet characterized by high production rates, as its cultivation can be done only under irrigation. The article considers the influence of agroecological conditions on crop yield and adaptability of garden carrots cultivars in the arid zone of the Caspian region. Experiments on studying the carrots cultivars was carried out on the fields of Precaspian Agrarian Federal Scientific Center of the RAS in 2017-2019. The purpose of the research was to study garden carrots cultivars from collection of plant genetic resources of Vavilov Institute for the selection of high-productive and more adapted samples. The object of research was 17 types of carrots from the world Vavilov collection. Based on three-year studies on yield, we can distinguish the following cultivars: Berlanda F1 (Netherlands), Nantese (Italy) and Imperator Type 9-11 (USA) with yield of 68.4 to 75.2 t/ha. The coefficient adaptability was higher than 1, in the varieties Berlanda F1 (Netherlands), Nantese (Italy), F1 Eagle (Canada), Imperator Type 9-11 (USA), Wav-88 (Germany), Surazhevskaya-1 (Russia). They have ability to adapt to difficult growing conditions and produce consistently high yields. The samples selected can be used in the future to create new cultivars and hybrids for conditions of the Caspian region.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2020;15(3):253-262
Influence of abiotic factors on spring oat yields in the Northern region of Russian Federation
Zobnina I.V., Korelina V.A., Batakova O.B.

Field experiments were carried out on sod-podzolic medium loamy soil, typical for the Northern region of the Russian Federation, in 2012-2019. The dependence of spring oat yields on abiotic conditions was studied. During the research years, the weather conditions varied significantly, which affected the productivity of spring oat. The yield of spring oat grain was found to have a very weak correlation with the effective temperature sum, weak correlation - with the total precipitation, and negative correlation - with the mean air temperature, which indicates the possibility of seed production of this crop in the Northern region of the Russian Federation. According to the data obtained, grain yields varied significantly from year to year. The reasons for the decline in grain productivity in individual years were different and complex. The most plastic cultivars with high productivity were identified.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2020;15(3):263-271
Genetics and plant breeding
Evaluation of yield and its components for some flax genotypes
Omar T.A.
Sixteen flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) genotypes were evaluated at Gemmeiza Agricultural Research Station, Agricultural Research Center, El-Gharbia Governorate, Egypt during the two successive seasons 2015/2016 and 2016/2017. Randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation for all studied traits had closely values. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance (as % of mean) for most studied traits. Plant height, technical length and stem diameter were the best selection indices to improve straw yield /plant, along with number of branches, capsules and seeds were effective selection criteria for improving seed yield /plant as proven by phenotypic and genotypic correlation
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2020;15(3):272-280
Soil science and agrochemistry
Analysis of the optimal location of the geographical network of long-term experiments with fertilizers application
Savin I.Y.

The foundations of the Geographic Network of Experiments with Fertilizers of Russia (GNEF), established in the 1930-1940s, have not changed fundamentally so far, which ensured the continuity of scientific research. But since then, quite a lot of new scientific data has been accumulated, there are new technologies, databases, on the basis of which GNEF can and should be modernized. The article deals only with one of the issues of the necessary modernization of GNEF - the spatial location of experimental fields and their representativeness. The Unified State Register of Soil Resources of Russia (USRSRR) was used as a basis for analysis of the optimal placement of experimental fields of GNEF. It was considered, that ideally experimental fields should characterize each soil, entered in USRSRR and used as arable land. According to the data obtained, the existing GNEF network is representative for 42 % of Russian arable land. It was shown that for full representation it should be extended by more than 90 points. Only in this case the results of the network experiments can be extrapolated to almost all arable soils in Russia. The placement of new GNEF points should be based on the information from USRSRR, as an official document adopted by the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2020;15(3):281-293
Veterinary science
Cfa-miRNAs-122 and -21 as modern biomarkers of primary hepatitis in dogs
El-Sebaey A.M., Abramov P.N., Borunova S.M.

Primary hepatitis (PH) is one of the most frequently diagnosed hepatic diseases in dogs. Its popular forms are acute hepatitis (AH) and chronic active hepatitis (CAH) which can progress to hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. This investigation aimed to evaluate the use of hepatocyte released Canine familiaris miRNAs(cfamiR)-122 and -21 as serum biological markers for the early and reliable diagnosis of PH and to reveal the onset of hepatic fibrosis. After the ultrasonographic and histological examination, fifteen healthy dogs were involved in the study as control group to compare with other thirty dogs confirmed to have AH or CAH (n = 15). Activity of liver enzymes as well as serum level of globulin and total bilirubin were significantly elevated in AH (P < 0.001) and CAH (P < 0.01) groups whereas, serum level of total protein, albumin, BUN and A/G ratio were significantly lowered in both PH groups (P < 0.01) compared to control. Cfa-miR-122 significantly expressed in AH (P < 0.001) and CAH (P < 0.01) and exhibited a potential significance in distinguishing these groups from control with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.98 and 0.96, respectively. Additionally, cfa-miR-122 displayed a potential role in distinguishing AH (P < 0.05) from CAH group with an AUC of 0.85. Cfa-miR-21 was only expressed in dogs of CAH group and displayed a potential role in distinguishing this group (P < 0.001) from AH and healthy groups with an AUC of 0.99 and 0.88, respectively. Therefore, cfa-miR-122 can be significantly expressed in dogs with two forms of PH whereas, cfa-miR-21 could be potentially enhanced only in chronic form of PH and may act as new non-invasive biomarker for distinguishing AH from CAH.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2020;15(3):294-307
Identification of Ixodidae ticks from cattle imported into the South Kivu province, east of the Democratic Republic of Congo
Bisusa M.A., Bizire M.E., Muntuokuwindi B.D., Nijimbere G., Musimwa K.R., Kambale V.G.
A survey has been conducted in Bukavu on bovines imported in Democratic Republic of Congo from Rwanda to the public slaughterhouse of Bukavu, with the aim of identifying the Ixodidae ticks on their body. Thus, 1024 ticks have been collected on 300 cows for the entomological identification. Four species have been identified whose Boophilus decoloratus (44.4 %), Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (43.9 %), Amblyomma variegatum (11 %) and Ixodes thomasai (2 %). This last species being a new among those recognized in South Kivu. A charge to ticks of 6.5 has been observed at those bovines and the infestation rate has been significantly different in the 4 races, the Friesland (41.1 %) and Ankolé presented the superior values. The importation of cows in this part of the country from Rwanda is a real factor which conducts to the introduction of ticks and also diseases in Democratic Republic of Congo. Then being measures of heath control in the border must be sustained and reinforced for minimizing real risks.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2020;15(3):308-317

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