Vol 14, No 3 (2019)

Botany
Physical and chemical analysis and biochemical composition of amaranth introduced in Dagestan
Magomedmirzoeva R.G., Gins M.S., Dadashev M.N.
Abstract

Amaranth leaves are of high nutritional value, containing various metabolites, monoand disaccharides, photosynthetic pigments, unsaturated acids, phenolcarboxylic acids with high antioxidant activity. Vegetable amaranth is grown in different soil and climatic conditions all over the world. The article describes the results of physicochemical analysis of composition of amaranth plant introduced in southern Dagestan. The results of determining biochemical composition of vitamins, organic acids, antioxidants, betacyanin - amaranthin, chlorophyll, carotenoids and chlorogenic acid in the leaves of the introduced amaranth are presented. It has been shown that amaranth culture can be an important source of vitamins and valuable biologically active substances for both humans and animals. Based on the results obtained on amaranth introduction, it can be noted that cultivation of amaranth has great prospects in Southern Dagestan, as a mass crop.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(3):185-195
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Genetics and plant breeding
Detection of genes associated with qualitative characteristics of gluten
Al-Azawi N.M., Abed Z.A., Al-Issawi M.
Abstract

The research was aimed at analyzing allelic variants of protein in wheat varieties used in Iraqi bakery and evaluating these varieties via genetic source using grain quality selection. Variety tests were carried out at field experimental station of Russian State Agrarian University - Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy. The analysis of wheat grain quality was made after harvesting in mid August. Allele state of genes controlling the quality of gluten in wheat grain was determined using the PCR method. Samples of Iraqi wheat varieties 12 (soft wheat) and One (durum wheat) are characterized by considerable variation of gluten content and quality. The five varieties whose genotype include an allelic variant of high molecular weight glutenins Glu-D1 5+10 and subunit Glu-A1-2* (Fateh, Tamuz-3, Abighreb-3, Iraq and Maxibak) were also studied. The highest gluten content was from 31.5 % in Iraq to 35.3 % in Fateh variety, while the gluten quality was not below the second group. Five varieties - Farah, AlMurug, Sham-6, Tahadi and Sabirbeg - had unusual combination of the allelic state of Glu-D1 2+12 (which is usually associated with low gluten quality) with a 2* subunit for the Glu-A1 locus, which determines the possibility of improving gluten quality to the wheat varieties.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(3):196-208
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Crop production
Effect of combined use of fertilizer and plant growth stimulating bacteria Rhizobium, Azospirillum, Azotobacter and Pseudomonas on the quality and components of corn forage in Iran
Naserzadeh Y., Nafchi A.M., Mahmoudi N., Nejad D.K., Gadzhikurbanov A.S.
Abstract

Zea mays variety 704 (single cross) was studied to investigate effect of chemical fertilizers and growth-promoting bacteria on yield and yield components of corn ( Zea mays ). A factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three replications at Tehran-Varamin Research Farm (Iran) in 2017. The treatments were as follows: inoculation of the seeds with growth promoters in four levels: Rhizobium , Azospirillum , Azotobacter and Pseudomonas ; Rhizobium , Azospirillum and Pseudomonas ; Rhizobium , Azotobacter and Pseudomonas ; Azospirillum , Azotobacter and Pseudomonas and use of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers at four levels: no use, 1/3, 2/3, and 100 % recommended were applied. The results showed that the use of fertilizer was significant on the traits such as several leaves per plant, number of seeds per row, number of seeds per ear, plant height and forage yield at 1 % level. The results indicated that the highest forage yield of 33.78 t ha-1 was obtained from the interaction between the use of fertilizers and biological fertilizers, Rhizobium , Azospirillum , Azotobacter and Pseudomonas , which was 42 % higher than control.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(3):209-224
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Nutritional value of vegetable Amaranthus tricolor L. seedlings grown in Moscow region
Sergiev I.G., Todorova D.A., Gins V.K., Motyleva S.M., Gins E.M., Moskalev E.A.
Abstract

The use of amperometric express method made it possible to measure quickly and evaluate content of waterand alcohol-soluble antioxidants in extracts from Amaranthus tricolor L. plants. Accumulation of low molecular weight antioxidants: ascorbic acid, beta-cyanine (amaranthine) and the total content of antioxidants in various organs of Valentina amaranth seedlings were studied. The maximum amount of low molecular weight antioxidants accumulates in leaves, compared with roots and stems of seedlings grown in open and protected ground. In open ground conditions, amaranth leaves and stems have 1.5-fold and 2-fold increased level of ascorbic acid than seedlings grown in protected ground. But the total content of water-soluble antioxidants in leaves and roots of seedlings is lower compared to seedlings of protected ground. Minimum amount of antioxidants was found in alcohol extracts of stems and roots in open ground, while the total content of antioxidants in stems and roots was 1.6 fold higher in seedlings grown in protected soil. The content of amaranthine is comparable in the studied organs of amaranth seedlings of both cultivation variants. The data obtained allow to recommend use of leaves and stems of amaranth seedlings grown in open and protected ground (early spring and autumn), as a preventive antioxidant dietary product.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(3):225-238
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Soil science and agrochemistry
Geospatial analysis and assessment of garden soil contamination in New York City
Paltseva A.A., Cheng Z.
Abstract

Elevated trace metal concentrations, in particular, lead (Pb), are prevalent in urban soils and it is one of the main hurdles for urban agriculture. The growing popularity of gardening in urban areas could also mean increased public health risk. In this study, the spatial distribution of Pb in New York City gardens was analyzed and visualized by Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. Pollution level and ecological risks of gardens and overall New York City (NYC) were evaluated with different indices. The degree of the contamination factors was ranked as follows: Pb >Cu > Zn > Cr>As>Ni>Cd. The single ecological risk index and potential ecological index indicated that Pb had moderate to significantly high risk to the local garden ecosystems. Based on the pollution load index, soil quality of the majority of NYC gardens were characterized as polluted. Geostatistical, geoprocessing, and spatial tools were used to create color-coded maps to support decision making related to gardening and to estimate potential human health risks from gardening, living, or working in/or near these gardens. These findings have important implications for the development of pollution prevention and mitigation strategies to reduce public health risk from garden soil trace metal contamination.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(3):239-254
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Veterinary science
Assessment of vital organ histopathology and plasma oxidative conditions of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss reared in earthen saltwater pond
Hoseini S.M., Gharavi B., Iri Y.
Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare gill, kidney, liver and gut histopathology, and plasma antioxidant markers of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss reared in saltwater earthen ponds in Gomishan, Iran. To this, 10000 fish were distributed in a three-ha earthen pond and 150 fish in three fiberglass tanks (2000L). Blood samples were taken after 3 months rearing with same commercial feed. The source of fish and feed was similar between the saltwater pond and fiberglass tanks. After the 3-month rearing, gill, kidney, liver and gut samples were taken from the pond fish; whereas, blood samples were taken from both the pond and tank fish. There was no significant difference in water temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH between the pond and tanks; however, water salinity and ammonia was higher in the pond compared to the tanks. Plasma superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity of the fish in earthen ponds were significantly higher than those fish reared in fiberglass tanks; however, there was no significant in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances between the pond and tanks. The fish had various histopathological symptoms including primary and lamella hyperplasia, lamellar fusion and epithelial lifting. In the kidney section, the fish showed glomerulus shrinkage and/or disappearance, melanomacrophage aggregates and hematopoietic tissue necrosis. These fish showed necrosis and melanomacrophage aggregates in liver and goblet cell hypertrophy in gut. The results suggest that the fish in the earthen pond faced stressful conditions, which might be due to water salinity and ammonia; however, other possible factors, such as pollutants and different feeding regimen must be considered.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(3):255-265
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Galactooligosaccharide effects as prebiotic on intestinal microbiota of different fish species
Hoseinifar S.H., Doan H.V., Ashouri G.
Abstract

Manipulation of the gut microbiota toward potentially beneficial bacteria (probiotics) has beneficial effects on fish physiology and health. The effects of prebiotics on gut microbiota are species specific. The present study aimed at investigation of the effects of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) as prebiotic on intestinal microbiota of Caspian roach and Caspian white fish fingerlings. which are among the most economically valuable species in the Caspian Sea. The study was conducted in a completely randomized design with two set of experiment each of them include three treatments in triplicates in which 0 (control), 1 and 2% GOS were used in diet for 6 weeks. At the end of the period, changes in the intestinal microbiota, including total bacterial count, lactic acid count and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) levels and dominance of LAB in the intestinal microbiota, were measured by culture-based method. Dietary GOS had no significant effect on total bacterial count in both species (P < 0.05). The LAB levels in the intestinal microbiota in the treatments fed with prebiotics was significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.05). LAB bacteria showed the highest increase and dominance in treatments fed with 2% GOS. Also, the highest ratio of lactic acid bacteria to the total number of viable bacteria was observed in the treatment with 2% GOS treatment (P < 0.05). The results of this study indicated the possibility of alterations in the bacterial communities of Caspian roach and Caspian white fish fingerlings gut toward beneficial bacterial communities using GOS as prebiotic.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(3):266-278
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LC50 determination and intoxication symptoms of a new pyridine carboxamide pesticide Flonicamid on common carp Cyprinus carpio
Ghelichpour M., Mirghaed A.T., Jimenez A.P.
Abstract

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the lethal toxicity and stress signs of Flonicamid toward juvenile common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ). The 96 h LC50 values, determined 43.17 mgL-1 by probit analysis in a semi-static system. LC50 24, 48 and 72 h were 47.54, 41.83 and 43.51 mgL-1, respectively. Behavioral changes include hyperexcitement, erratic swimming, dark coloration, loss of equilibrium and lethargy were observed with different intensities. Consequently, mortality rate, stress signs and behavioral changes observed in response to the Flonicamid are dependent to dose and time exposure.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(3):279-288
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