Vol 14, No 4 (2019)

Crop production
The role of nanotechnology for improving crop production
Lakzian A., Bayat M., Gadzhikurbanov A., Zargar M.
Today, green nanotechnology has great importance due to the presence of different modes of restrictive action against various pathogens such as fungi and bacterial species. The use of nanomaterials has recently increased in agriculture and plant-tissue culture thanks to their unique different properties such as; magnetic, electrical, mechanical, optical, and chemical properties. Optimum use of iron increases protein content in the wheat grain. They also enhance plant growth by improving disease resistance and increase stability of the plants by anti-bending and deeper rooting of crops. It has been reported by many researchers that Nano-fertilizers significantly influenced the seed germination which demonstrated the effect of Nano fertilizers on seed and seed vigor. Chemical methods have been used for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Developing Nano-biotechnology is generating interests in research towards eco-friendly, cost effective and biological synthesis of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles systems have been combined into plant fungal disease controlpractices. Using nanoparticles as biosensors in plant disease diagnostics is also illustrated.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(4):297-305
Effects of Gibberellic acid, micronutrient fertilizer and Calcium nitrate foliar fertilizer on growth and yield of tomato Solanum lycopersicum L. cultivated in Vietnam
Le V.T., Bui B.T.
In this study, we present the experimental results which evaluate the influence of Gibberellic acid GA3, micronutrient fertilizer and Calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2 foliar fertilizer on the growth and yield of tomato cultivar NHP11 cultivated in a net house located in Thanh Hoa province, Vietnam. The experiment including 8 formulas was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. In treatments with the application of GA3, micronutrient fertilizer and Ca(NO3)2 foliar fertilizer, plants were observed to grow better than the control (via some indicators such as plant height, leaf area index, number of flowers per plant, effective flower rate, number of fruits per plant, average fruit weight per plant). The yields differed due to different formulas on tomato. Results indicated that the highest yield was recorded at 50.73 tons ha-1 when the combination of GA3, micronutrient fertilizer and Ca(NO3)2 foliar fertilizer was applied in F8, followed by the record of 47.31 tons ha-1 in F6 (in presence of GA3 and Ca(NO3)2 foliar fertilizer), 46.55 tons ha-1 in F5 (in presence of GA3 and micronutrient fertilizer), 45.79 tons ha-1 in F7 (in presence of Ca(NO3)2 foliar fertilizer and micronutrient fertilizer). The yields of tomato in F2, F3, F4 when treated with supplemented separately GA3, micronutrient fertilizer and Ca(NO3)2 foliar fertilizer respectively were higher than those of the control (39.90 tons ha-1) but lower than the yield in mixed formulas. Results show that the treatment combination of GA3, micronutrient fertilizer and Ca(NO3)2 foliar fertilizer can promote the growth and yield of tomato.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(4):306-318
Influence of salinity on vegetative growth and photosynthetic pigments of bitter almond rootstock
Badran A.M., Savin I.Y.
Bitter almond rootstock is considered one of the most vital rootstocks for stone fruit species but it is classified as a plant sensitive to salinity. This experiment was carried out to study the effect of salt stress on vegetative growth and photosynthetic pigments of bitter almond rootstock as an attempt to sustain growth and increase its tolerance to high salt concentrations. However, the seeds were soaked in salt solution of NaCl as 1, 3, and 5 dsm-1 for 48 hours before stratification. After that, nuts were sown in perlite and treated with different saline solutions subsequently stratified at 6 ℃ for eight weeks. Sprouted seeds were cultivated in pots with a mixture of peat and perlite and treated only with the highest salt concentration 5 dsm-1. The treatments were arranged in a complete randomized block design with three replications. Vegetative traits and photosynthetic pigments content were estimated. The results revealed that soaking and pre-treating seed of bitter almond rootstock by means of high salt concentration 5dsm-1 during the germination period and subsequently after planting produced stronger transplants that had hardening, adaptation and could avoid the hyperosmotic shock of salt stress after planting. It is obvious throughout; increment of stem diameter, plant height, total number of leaves\plant, fresh and dry weight of leaves, photosynthetic pigments and total carbohydrate content of such transplants. While other coming seedlings from low salt concentrations were exposed to hyperosmotic shock and salt injury therefore inhibit growth rate of such plants, increased falling of leaves and finally reduced photosynthetic pigments content in the resulting seedlings.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(4):319-328
Resource-saving techniques for increasing tomato productivity
Kalmykova E.V., Novikov A.A., Petrov N.Y., Kalmykova O.V.

The purpose of the research was to substantiate feasibility and effectiveness of cultivating promising tomatoes varieties and hybrids in the Lower Volga region to obtain high-quality yields of 150 t/ha and more. It was the first time for chestnut soils, when comprehensive research on resource-saving techniques increasing vegetable crop productivity in an extremely arid climate under drip irrigation by regulating physiological and biological processes was conducted, and a system for applying these techniques was developed. The experiments were carried out according to generally accepted methods. The study revealed that in order to obtain the planned productivity of 110, 130, 150 t/ha in all the tomato varieties and a hybrid (Volgogradsky 5/95, Fokker F1 and Gerkules), differentiated irrigation regime was used. It resulted in yield increase up to 18.8 t/ha (when compared to planned 130 t/ha) and up to 10.2 t/ha (when compared to planned 150 t/ha) in the variants where Energiya-M growth regulator and Rastvorin water-soluble fertilizer were used with complete mineral fertilizer. Hercules tomato variety treated with N285P115K145 + Rastvorin + Energiya-M was the most economically viable for cultivation. According to the variants, a return on production costs of 6.87 rubles of income was achieved.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(4):329-346
Tomato fertigation in an open ground
Chamurliev O.G., Sidorov A.N., Kholod A.A., Chamurliev G.O., Bogomolova N.V.

Obtaining high and stable yields of tomato with good consumer qualities in the open field has now become problematic due to the fact that hybrids and varieties of tomato of an intensive type place high demands on the presence of moisture and nutrients in the root-soil layer. The required level of soil moisture in combination with the introduction of calculated doses of mineral fertilizers during the growing season provides for obtaining the planned yields of vegetables, including tomato. The most important resource for the further development of agriculture in the Russian Federation is irrigated land. Volgograd region is one of the largest irrigated agricultural regions in Russia. Growing of almost all vegetables in the region is conducted on irrigated lands. The use of only one irrigation without the use of fertilizers will not have a positive impact on the growth, development and productivity of plants. Fertigation is the most effective and economical way of delivering nutrients to the plant root system and allows to get a higher yields than other methods of fertilizer application. In fertigation systems, the control of optimal concentrations of fertilizers is easily achieved, their ratio and these parameters can be controlled automatically. The purpose of this work was to study the comparative efficiency of ammonium nitrate, calcium nitrate and a combination of calcium nitrate and ammonium chloride for tomato fertigation in combination with non-root dressings of complex water-soluble fertilizers containing macroand microelements in open feild on irrigated lighchestnut soil of dry steppe zone of chestnut soils in the Volgograd region. As a result, analysis of the use of mineral fertilizers for tomato fertigation in light chestnut soils of the Volgograd region was carried out. The positive effect of foliar dressing with microelements in the proposed dosages has been proven.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(4):347-361
Affect of growth regulators and irrigation on potato yield in unstable moistening regions
Zhevora S.V.

The article presents the results of studies (2014-2016) concerning the assessment of the use of growth regulators (Energia-M, Vigor Forte, Atonik Plus) in combination with irrigation in the field experiment during potato cultivation (Udacha variety). The study was conducted in the Ilek district of the Orenburg region, Krasnokholmskaya Agro-firm. The soil was residual meadow southern chernozem. According to the effectiveness of impact on potato yield in southern chernozem of the Orenburg region, the factors were as follows: irrigation provided yield increase from 40% (without fertilizers) to 65…66% (NPK + Regulators); mineral fertilizers provided yield increase from 41% (without irrigation) to 59% (with irrigation); growth regulators on optimal variants provided yield increase: Vigor Forte / Atonik (tubers + plants) - 12…13% for bogharic agriculture; 16…19% with irrigation to the corresponding mineral ground. The maximum yield of potatoes under irrigation was obtained on variants with 2-fold application of Atonic and Vigor Forte growth regulators (tubers + plants) - 44.2…44.5 t/ha, an increase to the mineral fertilizing (N100P120K100) - 17.9…18.6%. The optimum soil moisture was 70…75% FC in the irrigated area. This increased the payback of 1 kg NPK due to an increase in yield from 19.6 kg (mineral fertilizing, bogharic agriculture) to 55.6…67.2 kg of tubers (combination of NPK, irrigation and regulators). Water consumption decreased from 212 m3/t (mineral fertilizing) to 140…145 m3/t (combination of mineral fertilizers and plant growth regulators).

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(4):362-373
Genetics and plant breeding
GGE biplot analysis of Line by tester for seed yield and its attributes in sunflower
Ahmed M.A., Abdelsatar M.A., Attia M.A., Abeer A.A.
Nine genetically diverse sunflower promising lines in their economic trait were crossed using line by tester mating design in 2018 spring season, to estimate per se performance, combining ability, heterosis, gene action and heritability for earliness, yield and its attributes traits. The parents involved four sunflower CMS lines namely L1 (A3), L2 (A5), L3 (A9) and L4 (A13) (called hereafter “Lines” (as female parents) and five sunflower genotypes T1 (RF9), T2 (RF10), T3 (RF11), T4 (RF14) and T5 (RF1) as male parents (called hereafter “Tester”). In 2018 and 2019 summer season, the nine parents along with their 20 F1s seeds were evaluated at Shandaweel Agricultural Research Station, ARC, Sohag Governorate, Egypt using a randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Mean squares due to parents (P), crosses (C), CMS lines (L), RF testers (T), P vs C and L x T were significant for all studied traits. A larger magnitude of non-additive gene action than additive was revealed by greater ratios (GCA/ SCA) than unity for all studied traits (except for days to 50% flowering). A5 and A13 of CMS lines and RF11 and RF14 of RF lines proved to be the best general combiners for seed weight plant-1 and one or more of its attributes traits. Moreover, the best cross combinations A13 x RF11, A13 x RF1 and A5 x RF9 performed better than other developed hybrids in view of seed weight plant-1 and one or more of its attributes, hence these F1 hybrids could further be used on commercial exploitation.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(4):374-389
Quantitative determination of trypsin inhibitor as a breeding marker in maize varieties with different resistance to fungal diseases
Shekhvatova G.V., Ashin V.V., Sotchenko E.F.

Determination of plant resistance to fungal pathogens is an important breeding component. Thus, the study of protein profiles from corn kernels (13 genotypes) revealed a constitutively pronounced 14 kDa protein, trypsin inhibitor (TI), which is present at a relatively high level of concentration in seven Aspergíllus flavus - resistant maize lines, but at low concentrations or is absent in six sensitive lines. The 14 kDa trypsin inhibitor (TI) also showed antifungal activity against other mycotoxicogenic species. In this regard, the task was to determine the content of TI in varieties of maize with known properties, resistance, or sensitivity to such fungal pathogens of maize as head smut, common smut, and Fusarium stalk rot. According to the data obtained, the content of TI varies in different varieties and can vary by 4 times. However, in disease-resistant varieties its content is increased, which may be the primary marker of resistance of the variety to fungal pathogens.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(4):390-402
Вiotechnological approaches to reduce biogenic risks in crop production: potato case
Lenivko S.M., Boyko V.I.

The article presents an overview of the biogenic agro-ecological risks in crop production, to reduce which it is possible to use biotechnological approaches. Ways to reduce the negative impact of the two most common harmful objects, the сolorado potato beetle ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) and phytophthoras ( Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) De Bary), which lead to significant losses of potato yield, are considered. It is shown that the currently used methods of plant cell engineering (somatic hybridization and microclonal reproduction) are environmentally sound biotechnological methods of controlling black eye rot potato. The need to develop genetically engineered methods is associated with an exacerbation of biogenic agroecological risks, the reduction of which is an important approach is a proactive introgressive breeding strategy based on cell engineering and molecular methods.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(4):403-422
Plant protection
Food security and sustainable crops production with considering climate change in China
Shahrajabian M.H., Sun W., Cheng Q.
Increase in the mean seasonal temperature can reduce the duration of many crops which may lead to final yield reduction. China needs to cope with the adverse effects of climate change by developing heat and drought resistant high yielding varieties and cultivars to ensure food security in China. Farmers should adapt to climate change strategies which integrate traditional experience and indigenous knowledge with scientific researches and government polices as key factors. Climate change will extend growing seasons for some crops and make shorter growing seasons for other crops in Northern part of China and will bring less reliable rains, soils that retain less water, the spread of dangerous pests and unwanted weeds. The catastrophic consequences of climate change can be avoided if all countries work and cooperate together towards significant reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(4):423-429
Molecular identification of Ditylenchus destructor nematode with PCR Species-Specific primers in the Moscow region
Mahmoudi N., Naserzadeh Y., Pakina E.N., Limantceva L.A., Nejad D.K.

Potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most vital food and industrial crop and Ditylenchus destructor is an influential pathogenic potato nematode and is quarantine pest in many states and territories. As a result, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was optimized to identify Ditylenchus destructor reliably and rapidly. The species-specific internal transcribed spacer (ITS) was used as the primer of the D. destructor ribosomal DNA gene. Some populations of this species from the Moscow region in the Russian Federation were investigated through species-specific primer PCR. New sequence from ITS-rRNA was deposited in the GenBank under accession number MN122076. The current molecular technique is more appropriate to distinguishing of nematode species, since it is practical, fast and precise.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(4):430-436
Protective afforestation
Scientific support of production experiments in forest plantations of green zone in Nur-Sultan city
Kabanova S.A., Kabanov A.N., Khasenov A.A., Danchenko M.A.

Natural and climatic conditions of the green zone of Nur-Sultan (Kazakhstan) are unfavorable for tree and shrub species due to low soil fertility, sharply continental climate and other factors. The purpose of the research was to choose an assortment of stable introducents for Nur-Sultan green zone. The monitoring of growth and condition of artificial plantations included the selection of an assortment of stable coniferous introducents. The objects of research were coniferous introducents, which were planted in 2011 as container annual seedlings and three-year-old seedlings with open root system. According to the results of observations of conservation, taxation indicators and condition of artificial plantations, it was revealed that for the soil and climatic conditions of the research region, Picea nigra and Picea sibirica turned out to be the most adapted. Quercus robur was also characterized by good growth, but in the first years after planting, it was significantly damaged by late spring frosts and rodent ingestion. Larix sibirica , despite the fact that most of its plants died in the first years after planting, has adapted to soil and climatic conditions now and grows well enough and has a satisfactory condition. The safety of introduced plants planted with annual seedlings with a closed and open root system was practically the same and at the age of 8 it was 62.6 and 64.9%, respectively. It was revealed that it is better to plant crops with older seedlings (3-4 years old), because cultivation of annual seedlings with closed root system requires large financial and labor investments due to prolonged manual care. Therefore, to create artificial plantations in the green zone of Nur-Sultan, Picea sibirica , Picea nigra and Quercus robur can be recommended. When growing them, it is necessary to carry out thorough agro-technical cares and protection from rodents.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(4):437-452
Soil science and agrochemistry
Improving efficiency of chemical processing in strip-tilled row crops
Meznikova M.V., Borisenko I.B., Ulybina E.I., Boyarkina O.V.

When growing crop products, it is important to use an integrated approach at the stages of planning technological operations and developing technical means for their implementation. In this case, the best result is achieved when coordinating operations on mechanical and chemical tillage, which provides for the protection and nutrition of plants. Along with this, it is important to consider following the applied technology to environmental principles, since agriculture directly affects the environment of our planet. Resource-saving technologies help preserve nature for future generations, restore natural fertility and take care of economic well-being. For row crops, the use of Strip-till technology is recommended. This requires 20...30% of all costs to direct to chemical treatment. Obviously, a decrease in the chemical effect on the soil during the transition to strip technology is necessary, and the introduced chemical should be redirected strictly to the target. A technical solution for the adaptation of serial sprayers is proposed, which consists of the use of strip spraying with the ability to accurately add and redistribute the working solution to the objects of influence, considering stage of plant development. This allows to reduce hectare application rates and stress of cultivated plants, and to save money on chemical processing. In addition, it also helps to solve environmental problems by reducing the chemical load on the soil. The proposed approach and technical solution make it possible to supplement the complex of machines for mechanical tillage in the framework of strip technology and reduce the chemical load on the biosphere.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(4):453-465
Animal breeding
Litter feed additive as source of amino acids and beneficial bacteria
Stepanova A.M., Tarabukina N.P., Scryabina M.P., Neustroev M.P., Parnikova S.I.

Feed additive was derived from poultry manure by microbiological synthesis. After a 10-day feeding poultry with probiotic strains of bacteria B. subtilis TNP-3 and B. subtilis TNP-5, the litter does not contain potential enteropathogens and can be used as a raw material for feed additive. Based on the results of microbiological and biochemical studies the technology of feed additive (powder) with the use of extrusion was developed. Extrusion at a temperature of up to 120 °C for 5-6 seconds provides presence of beneficial bacteria and significantly high content of essential amino acids. According to the results of biochemical studies, litter feed additive contains 18 free amino acids. The total concentration of free amino acids in the feed additive (powder) is 406.3 mg/kg, which is 1.7 times higher than that in the litter without fermentation and extrusion. The experiments have shown that inclusion of 3.3% feed additive in the diet does not have negative effect on physiological state, viability and productivity of laying hens. Survival of birds in both groups was 100%. Additive application in the experimental group of chickens revealed absence of opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms and microscopic fungi, presence of bifidobacteria and spore-forming aerobic Bacillus bacteria in powder, as well as predominance of beneficial micro flora and lack of potential enteropathogens (compared to control). It allows to conclude that feed additive obtained by microbiological synthesis from bird droppings possess probiotic properties. The results of biochemical study of egg production indicate that the use of food additives (to 3.3% of the basic diet) for laying hens significantly increases content of major micro and macro-elements in eggs, compared to the control. Therefore, the use of feed additive-powder (up to 3.3% of the basic diet) does not reduce egg quality. Thus, based on the results of these studies, it can be concluded that the litter obtained from laying hens, after application of probiotic ‘Nord-Bakt’, further fermentation with strains Bacillus subtilis TNP-3 and Bacillus subtilis TNP-5, followed by extrusion can be used as a feed additive as a source of amino acids and beneficial bacteria.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(4):466-480
Veterinary science
Biocidal activity of the extracts of Vernonia amygdalina against ticks responsible for livestock diseases
Bisusa M., Bagalwa M., Zirirane D.N., Mushagalusa N., Karume K.
Biocidal activity of Vernonia amygdalina was assessed on Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks responsible for livestock diseases in North and South-Kivu provinces. In vitro trials were conducted in the laboratory of Lwiro Research Center for Natural Sciences to determine the lethal dose for different days after ticks contact with extracts. Five different dosages of 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 g/mL were evaluated. Water was considered as positive control and Batycol as negative control. The phytochemical screening of extracts of Vernonia amygdalina plant shows that this plant contains several substances responsible for acaricidal activity, mainly saponins, terpenoids, steroids and tannins. The experiment shows a mortality rate that varies with the concentration of the extracts; the most fatal is 20 g/mL and decreases with exposure time. The aqueous extracts showed a progressive decrease in mortality compared to ethanol extracts. This is due to the dissolution of the substances responsible for this insecticidal activity. The study recommends the application of aqueous extracts of Vernonia amygdalina in the fight against cattle ticks. Indeed, this is a natural insecticide available and easier to prepare, non-toxic to humans and is rapidly degraded in the environment.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(4):481-491
Veterinary sanitary inspection
Veterinary-sanitary inspection of cattle meat affected with benign tumor
Seregin I.G., Baranovich E.S., Nikitchenko V.E., Nikitchenko D.V., Rystsova E.O.

The rate of benign tumor detection in slaughtered cattle was studied. Tumor pathology was detected on average in 0.04% of the studied livestock. Manifestations of various new growths in this animal species have specific features. Tumors are detected 2-3 times more often in cows and bulls than in young animals. The veterinary and sanitary characteristics of cattle meat affected with benign tumors were compared with those of animal meat without tumors. Affected meat had deviations in physical properties, chemical composition of meat affected with tumors, content of primary protein breakdown products, volatile fatty acids (+0.05 mg/KOH) and amino-ammonium nitrogen (+0.54 mg/%) compared with meat of healthy cattle. It was revealed that the samples of meat affected with tumors were highly contaminated with microorganisms (0.28…0.80×102), including coliforms and St. aureus . Pathogenic bacteria of the genera Salmonella , L. monocytogenes , Cl. perfringens etc. were not detected in the test samples. In meat affected with tumors, relative bioavailability decreased by 4.99…13.87% and safety - by 5.89…13.89% as compared to meat of healthy cattle. Based on the data obtained, proposals were developed on the most rational and safe use of meat from animals affected by benign tumors for food and feed.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(4):492-510
Socio-economic impacts of the exploitation of the marshes of Kayanza province in the Northern Burundi: case of marshes of the average Ruvubu and its tributaries
Nijimbere G., Suprunov A.I., Banyankimbona G.
The wetlands whose marshes are currently under pressure from the growing population require a consequent increase in production. The marshes are now agricultural reserves coveted because, firstly, the scarcity of arable land, of the other problems of erosion and soil fertility decline affecting land in hills uphill. The mostly poor people resort to these marginal lands, to the suppression of fallows and to afforestation. This results in overexploitation that accelerates the degradation of soil and biological and abiotic resources. However, farmers do not have the knowledge and technologies to enable them to sustainably manage wetlands. The results of this study show that the population of our study area is largely dependent on marshes for drinking and irrigation water supply, building and basketry materials, and plant species to feed the farm animals. The majority of farmers have a portion of land in the marshes. The main crops are currently leguminous and tuberous plants with rice and beans which are successively the most productive crops. The majority exploit the marshes in both dry and rain seasons. The marshes provide 78% of the farmers with an average income between 0 and $ 30 per plot/season. The income is very low given the needs of farmers. These activities have resulted in the disappearance of the original fauna and vegetation of these marshes more than 13 years ago. The results of the study led us to conclude that these marshes were dominated by Cyperus papyrus . The draining of marshes has led to the drying up of springs, the loss of many animal and plant species.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(4):511-519
Management and development of agro-industrial complex
Statistical analysis of current development of agriculture in Russian regions
Ivanov N.I., Shevchenko T.V., Gorbunov V.S.

Regional social and economic development is characterized by presence of wide imbalances in structure of industry specialization, which are largely due to spatial development of individual territories. As part of a statistical study of agro-industrial complex development in regions of Russia, uneven agricultural development of certain territories, their involvement, as well as degree of participation in single national economic complex of the country are reflected. At the level of statistical significance, two of the region’s most important in terms of accumulated agro-industrial potential are identified - Krasnodar Territory and Rostov Region. Based on the account of a wide range of socio-economic indicators, the subjects of the Russian Federation were ranked by integral indicator of development of agricultural sector and by urbanization level. The regions dominating for certain types of agricultural indicators were identified and their general dynamics over a long period of statistical observations were reflected. In the process of the research, a general conclusion is made step by step about development opportunities of agro-industrial complex in the regions in strategy for sustainable development of rural territories not only at the territorial level, but, more significantly, at the federal and local levels. In order to develop rural territories, among other things, it is necessary to create imperative social conditions that will preserve existing national economic potential and ensure fulfillment of not only production, but also demographic, cultural, historical and laborfunction in the village.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(4):520-558

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