Vol 12, No 3 (2017)

Crop production


Shafigullin D.R., Romanova E.V., Gins M.S., Pronina E.P.


The study of variability degree of the traits-elements of the yield structure in specific soil-climatic conditions is of great importance for the making of highly productive and yielding varieties. The variability of the plant organism is determined by the genetic predisposition and depends on the growing conditions, including the meteorological features of the growing season. To determine the maximum and minimum values of the quantitative characteristics of the initial material, we studied the oscillation coefficient (Vr). It made it possible to estimate the extreme points of fluctuations of variability relative to the mean, showed the potential for the rate of reaction of the geno-types of the introducing soybean samples under changing growing conditions. Comparative field studies of Glycine max L. populations of different origins were conducted in 2015-2016 in the Moscow region conditions and revealed different variability strength of quantitative traits and their data changes. Variation characteristics of yield structure elements were studied in the populations representing 190 soybean Russian and foreign breeding samples of 000-00 ripeness groups. We used assessment of the variation intensity according to the structural yield analysis. Using structural analysis we selected individual plants and made breeding lines with the best combination of yield structure elements. Analysis of variance defined the diversity contribution of different collection samples in total variance of each quantitative trait. We studied the variability of the following indicators: plant height, height of attachment of the lower bean, number of branches per plant, number of beans per plant, number of productive nodes, average number of beans in a node, number of seeds per plant, average number of seeds in a bean, weight of seeds per plant, weight of 1000 seeds. We identified different intensities of each variations, features by years. The suitability of soybean varieties for mechanized harvesting is largely determined by the height of the attachment of the lower bean, which directly affects crop losses. Oscillation of the attachment height of the lower bean was on average high (Vr = 170%). This feature showed a high degree of fluctuations in population limits, which indicates a significant level of influence of modification variability. Variability analysis of yield structure elements revealed the stability of the following signs of breeding samples: average number of beans in a node (Vσ = 21), average number of seeds in a bean (Vσ = 14), weight of 1000 seeds (Vσ = 28). Selection according featured promising starting material is the most rational.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2017;12(3):217-225
pages 217-225 views

Land management


Sinenko V.A.


Human use of the land resources of the Russian Federation for the provision of social and financial aspects of life activity is a kind of anthropogenic impact on the component of the natural environment - land. The earth, being a natural object and a natural resource by virtue of Art. 4 of the Federal Law from 10.01.2002 No. 7-FZ “On Environmental Protection” is considered the subject of en-vironmental protection from pollution, depletion, degradation, spoilage, destruction and other negative effects of economic and other work. The data of the governmental ecological forecast show that the eco-logical state of land resources undergoing intensive anthropogenic influence tends to deteriorate. Problems of improving the ecological status of territories occupy an important place in modern state-wide land and environmental policies. The land as an object of immovable property is considered to be an object of protec-tion of property from violations of the legal procedure for the use of land (non-targeted use of land), viola-tions of the rights of participants in land relations (unauthorized occupation of lands, destruction of land boundaries, illegal disposal). Thus, government land control over the use and protection of the territory as a natural object, land resource and real property should be carried out by officials at the municipal level.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2017;12(3):226-236
pages 226-236 views

Morphology and ontogenesis of animals


Vetokh A.N., Nikishov A.A., Volkova N.A.


The aim of this work was to study effect of integration and expression of recombinant DNA on the morphometric characteristics and incubation qualities of transgenic chicken eggs. Hens were obtained using lentiviral vector, which ensures the constitutive expression of the recombinant product in the cells of the oviduct protein part. Transgenic chickens have been created on the basis of Hisex White cross chickens. Eggs were selected in the study the shelf life of which did not exceed two days from the time of egglaying for more accurate data. The egg shape index, the total weight of the egg and the weight of its components - yolk and dense protein, the thickness of the shell, the large and small diameter of the dense protein, the diameter of the yolk, and the height of the protein and yolk were studied to assess the morpho-metric parameters of eggs. The calculation formulas for obtaining data by units of Hau, protein index and yolk index were used to assess the quality of protein and yolk. A veracious increase in the diameter and mass of yolk in egg from transgenic hens as compared to the control was established. It amounted to 13.6% and 28.9%, respectively. This may be due to a change in the composition of eggs, which is due to the expression of additional (recombinant) protein in the egg. The fertilization index of transgenic chickens eggs in com-parison with the control was studied. Decrease in egg fertilization by 12% was observed in transgenic hens compared to control. This may be due to the influence of integrated genes on the development of embryos. Differences in the death of embryos during the incubation period were noted. In transgenic chickens, it oc-curred on earlier critical for the development of the embryo stages.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2017;12(3):237-242
pages 237-242 views


Nikitchenko V.E., Nikitchenko D.V., Merkulov M.A., Semenov N.V., Shumilov I.A.


The dynamics of growth of the live weight, digestive canal, liver, pancreas in the hens of the Shaver-Brown cross in the egg direction of productivity were studied in postembryonic ontogenesis from 1 day to 476 days of age. It was established that the most intensive growth of the live weight of the bird occurs before the 28-day age. For the period from 1-day to 28-day-old live weight in chickens was increased in comparison with the weight of one-day chickens by 6.52 times, males - 7.61 times; from 1-day to 140-day (puberty period) - in chickens 34.98 times, in cocks - 45.43 times; for the entire postembryonic period (476 days) increased by 45, 93 times, roosters - 60.93 times, respectively. The weight of the ante-rior part of the intestine for the entire postembryonic period increased in 22.19 times, and the males - 27.54 times; the middle part of the intestine is 45.8 and 60.46 times; and the back of the intestine - 81.3 and 72.2 times, respectively. The weight of the liver for the entire postembryonic period in chickens in-creases 35.67 and in males it is 49.9 times. The weight of the pancreas in chickens is increased 70 times and in males it is 82 times.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2017;12(3):243-252
pages 243-252 views


Afanasiev V.A., Nikishov A.A., Belov A.V., Kostitsina E.A.


Brief results of research at the Department of Zootechnics of the PFUR in more than 30 years are reported on the relationship between cosmophysical activity and animal productivity (the rhythm of milk yield of cows and the chemical composition of milk, the biochemical composition of cows' blood). It is established that in even and odd 11-year solar cycles, animals react differently to cosmophysical activity. In even cycles, the increase in solar activity contributes to the growth of milk yields. In odd cycles, increasing solar activity reduces milk yield. The data of scientific observations, covering the periods of even and odd cycles, should be grouped and analyzed separately by cycles. Within 2-3 years, at the lowest peak of solar activity, and 2-3 years - at the top peak of activity (with the change of magnetic poles on the Sun) minimal and unreliable correlations are noted. The strongest correlation was noted in the middle of the rise or decrease in solar activity. The rhythm of milk yield was noted regard-less of the lactation phase of cows. Approximately 1/3 of the time, milk yield increased, 1/3 - decreased and 1/3 - remained at the same level, with fluctuations, with periods from 2.7; 3.3; up to 5.5 days. With an increase in milk yield during 31.0% of lactation days, the content of fat and protein in milk decreased, respectively, 25.8 and 25.4% of the time. With a decrease in milk yield during 33.7% of lactation days, the fat and protein content did not change, respectively, 49.8 and 48.1% days. The most pronounced interval of rhythmicity of the concentration of fat and protein in milk from 2 to 2.5 days with an average value of 2.2 days was established. In addition rhythm 2.8; 3.4; 4.4; 8; 32; 41,1 and 72 days was marked. Approxi-mately with the same cycles in the milk, sugar concentrations, density and acidity were changed.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2017;12(3):253-260
pages 253-260 views


Prohorov I.P., Nikitchenko D.V.


Data on morphological carcass composition study in both purebred and mixed bred bull-cal-ves, obtained from crossing black-and-white cows with Aberdeen-Angus and Charolais bulls, are provided in the article. It has been discovered that the carcasses mass of bull-calves increased with age due to more intensive. Lean part growth and skeleton to a lesser degree, Bull-calves, genotype has an important influence on muscu-lar system growth. Inherited potential in musculature growth is better realized in Charolais mongrel bull-calves, the degree of muscular component being 253.6 kg at the age of 18 months, which is by 31.5% bigger than in they black-and-white herdmates. There are no big differences in carcass muscular tissue weight between Aberdeen-Angus crossbreeds and black-and-white Bull-calves. The greatest adipopexis growth by the end of the experiment is a characteristic feature of Aberdeen-Angus crossbreeds. The skeleton growth rate of young animals by comparison during the experimental period is practically the same, but with age the skeleton growth rate decreases significantly in bull-calves.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2017;12(3):261-271
pages 261-271 views

Veterinary sanitary inspection


Dolgov V.A., Lavina S.A., Nikitchenko V.E., Seregin I.G.


Biological evaluation of the quality and safety of food, feed and environmental objects is a highly sensitive, informative test with high productivity, which does not require complicated equipment and large material costs. Biological evaluation is impeccable from the ethical point of view. Biotesting allows to give an integral assessment of the object taking into account the impact on it of various toxic compounds present in the environment. At present, the possibility of using biotesting to assess the quality and safety of honey and bee products has not been studied. At the same time, the use of biotests alternative to higher animals makes it possible to study the mechanisms of action of this complex product on the body, to assess the risks of uncontrolled application of honey and bee products.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2017;12(3):272-278
pages 272-278 views


Seryogin I.G., Nikitchenko D.V., Mikheyeva M.I.


Materials on veterinary and sanitary examination of salmon caviar, sold in the network of trade enterprises and in the markets of Moscow, are provided. We studied the assortment of red caviar in trade enterprises, the demand for red caviar by different layers of the population, analyzed the veterinary and sanitary requirements for salmon caviar, analyzed the samples of commercial salmon caviar in the pre-sent-day mode, determined the types of commercial falsification in order to determine the quality and safety of salmon caviar. On the basis of the data obtained, proposals have been developed to improve the veterinary and sanitary examination of salmon caviar which help to identify various falsifications of red caviar, sold in trade enterprises and food markets.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2017;12(3):279-288
pages 279-288 views

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