Vol 15, No 2 (2020)

Crop production
Impact of cultivation technologies on yield and grain quality of winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. in Moscow region
Rebouh N.Y., Polityko P.M., Kapranov V.N., Fedorischev V.N., Garmasch N.J., Atmachian G.P.

The current study is aimed at evaluating the reaction of winter wheat varieties according to cultivation technologies at a different level of intensity i.e. basic, intensive and high intensive. The cultivation technologies included fertilizers, pesticides and growth regulators at different combinations and concentrations. The experiment was established in order to determine the optimum conditions of winter wheat cultivation. Three winter wheat varieties were studied: Moskovskaya 40 (V1), Nemchinovskaya 17 (V2) and Nemchinovskaya 85 (V3). Yield performances and grain quality (measured through protein and gluten content) were determined according to the tested cultivation technologies. The results showed that the cultivation technology affected grain wheat productivity and quality on all varieties studied, since the highest yields were obtained using high intensive cultivation technology for all varieties studied, Moskovskaya 40 - 9.65 t/h, Nemchinovskaya 17 - 8.58 t/h and Nemchinovskaya 85 - 9.87 t/h. However, according to the basic technology, the yield was lower by 20…64 %. The tested cultivation technologies demonstrated that high intensive cultivation technology increased wheat quality. The highest protein content (18 %) was recorded in Nemchinovskaya 85 variety. The present results give real opportunities for a largescale application of the tested cultivation technologies in different agricultural lands of Russia.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2020;15(2):113-122
Fuzzy logic device for crop analysing, modeling and forecasting in the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic
Bischokov R.M.

Using computer fuzzy-logical models based on empirical values of climatic characteristics (rainfall, temperature and humidity) of long-term observations (1955-2018) from meteorological stations in the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic (Nalchik, Baksan, Prokhladny and Terek) and crop yields (winter wheat, spring wheat, corn, sunflower, millet, oats), dependence of crop yields on variations of climatic factors were analyzed and a specific forecast was given. Setting expected values of climatic characteristics in computer model, we received possible values of productivity for the next season. Uniformity assessment (Dixon and Smirnov - Grabbsa’s criterion), stability (Student and Fischer’s criterion), statistical importance of parameters of distribution and accidental errors were determined. Originality of the method is in the fact that in the form of input parameters of the model predictors, the previously calculated forecast values of the meteorological parameters for the next agricultural year were used, and at the output, the predicted values of crop productivity were obtained as predictants. Furthermore, recommendations on adoption of management decisions were developed.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2020;15(2):123-133
Plant protection
Specific Identification Method based on PCR for Drosophila melanogaster
Naserzadeh Y., Pakina E.N., Nafchi A.M., Gadzhikurbanov A.S.

D. melanogaster is one of the most harmful citrus fruit flies having a large number of host plants. The molecular diagnostic method has been created for identification the D. melanogaster from another non-quarantine species Drosophila spp. The proposed method for differentiation is to use the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I gene region 709-bp. We amplified samples of DNA with primers Droso-S391 and Droso-A381 by D. melanogaster, D. suzukii, and D. Simulans collections in the laboratory samples from many countries and contrasted with sequences of other GenBank Drosophila taxa. The findings of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on DNA sequence polymorphisms showed that these primers accurately identify the area of the gene as well as the unique primers of Drosophila melanogaster.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2020;15(2):134-141
Data on biology and ecology of Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni Tozzetti) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on fruit trees in the Peloponnese
Stathas G.J., Kostriva Α., Skouras P.J., Kontodimas D.C., Karipidis C.F.
The study was conducted In Kalamata, Messinia, province of the Peloponnese, where infestations of Pseudauacaspis pentagona (Targioni Tozzetti) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) were found on kiwi trees Actinidia deliciosa (Actinidiaceae), peach trees Prunus persica (Rosaceae) and mulberry trees Morus alba (Moraceae). Data on biology and ecology of the scale were recorded by samplings of infested branches of mulberry trees and by examining them in the laboratory, during the years 2016-2018. Pseudaulacaspis pentagona is an oviparous and amphigonic species. The fecundity of the scale fluctuated between 97 and 133 eggs per female. In the area of Kalamata it completed 3 generations per year and overwintered as mated pre-ovipositing female. The main natural enemies of P. pentagona recorded in the area of Kalamata are the coccinellid predators: Chilocorus bipustulatus (L.) and Rhyzobius lophanthae Blaisdell.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2020;15(2):142-149
A new primer set for amplification of ITS-rDNA in Ditylenchus destructor
Mahmoudi N., Nejad D.K., Shayanmehr F.

A technique was developed for the identification of Ditylenchus destructor nematode belonging to the Ditylenchus genus, based on the use of different primers for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two universal ribosomal primers were amplified to the internal transcribed spacer region ITS-rDNA. The sequencing of PCR products confirmed the polymorphism between species. The primers were sensitive to generate a particular band of the correct size (300bp) from the DNA template of a single, separate D. destructor stage of development. Screening populations of D. destructor from Iran and the Russian Federation have tested the reliability of the primers, and the expected size of the band was produced for all test populations. Ditylenchus destructor closely related species have also been tested and no specific band was amplified. Such results showed that the primers currently developed are useful for quantifying the D. destructo r density in potato tuber.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2020;15(2):150-158
Soil science and agrochemistry
Efficiency of complex protective measures in cultivating perennial grasses in radioactively contaminated floodplain meadows
Bokaturo N.N., Spravtsev A.A., Astashina A.A., Potsepai S.N., Shapovalov V.F.

In a stationary, factorial experiment established in 1994 on radioactively contaminated natural floodplain fodder lands, the effect of cultural practices in combination with agrochemical measures was studied in order to produce organic feed (hay) which complies with the applicable standards of VP 13.5.13/06-01 in terms of specific activity of cesium in them - 137. The translocation sizes of 137Сs in the soil-plant system were determined by a complex of agrotechnical and agrochemical measures. The highest effectiveness of protective counter-measures in the framework of the research was obtained with amelioration of the flood meadow. Transition of cesium-137 from the soil into the feed, and from the feed into the livestock products (milk, meat) was calculated. Application of full mineral fertilizer with a N:K ratio of 1:1.5 both against surface and root treatment reduces the 137Cs transition into livestock production, that accordingly reduces the risk of a high internal irradiation dose to people consuming these products to the levels conforming radiation safety standards.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2020;15(2):159-172
Reducing plant damage as a way to protect the biosphere from pollution by chemically hazardous effects
Meznikova M.V., Borisenko I.B., Chamurliev O.G., Chamurliev G.O., Idrisova L.S.

In difficult economic realities, the primary task in growing crops is to reduce costs in compliance with quality requirements. At the same time, environmental safety issues are becoming more and more obvious. Lack of knowledge or poor technical settings often result in catastrophic consequences due to unreasonable chemicals application and increases emergency risks in agriculture. In this regard, chemical plant protection requires special attention in terms of safety management. The method of strip chemical treatment of crops reduces the effects of chemically hazardous substances on plants, emphasizing the importance and relevance of the research direction. Based on the analysis of production costs for chemical treatment, the shortcomings of serial machines for chemical plant treatment were identified. A technology and technical solution for strip spraying with redistribution of operating solutions to the exposure objects, considering plant growth stage, were proposed. It allowed to accurately adding the active substance to the object, which caused decrease in application rate per hectare, reduction of plant stress, and saving in costs for chemical treatment. Simultaneously, it contributed to the solution of environmental problems by reducing chemical load on soil. This method reduces the risk of emergencies when using chemically hazardous substances in agriculture.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2020;15(2):173-181
Reducing the negative impact of soil erosion in the Belgorod region through adaptive landscape farming system
Soldat I.E.

In the Russian Federation, solving problems of land use, land relations, and land policy leave the basis for social, environmental, economic, and overall political stability of the state. The area of the Belgorod region is 2713.4 thousand hectares, including arable land - 1654.4 thousand hectares (61 %), pastures - 347.6 thousand hectares (12.8 %), hayfield - 68.1 thousand hectares (2.5 %), forests and other lands - 316.5 thousand hectares (22.7 %). The area of eroded soils is 53.6 % of the entire territory of the region. They include: slightly washed out soils - about 35 %, moderate washed out soils - about 13 %, strongly washed out soils - 5.6 %, and flushed - about 1 %. According to Belgorod agrarian scientific center of the RAS area of eroded lands in the Belgorod region has increased in the Western natural-agricultural zone - by 5.1 %, in the Central - by 8.4 % and in the South-East - by 9.1 % over the last 30…40 years. Currently, the concept of adaptive landscape farming has been developed, which provides for comprehensive measures to prevent soil degradation and create environmentally sustainable agricultural landscapes. Adaptive landscape soil protection system of agriculture provides for expansion of perennial grasses up to 25 %, introduction of leguminous crops and annual grasses in crop rotations. With a reduction in the use of mineral and organic fertilizers in modern economic conditions, it is impossible to achieve a balance of humus acceptable for sustainable development of the studied agricultural landscape. System of agriculture adapted to local landscapes provides for introduction of the whole complex of soil conservation measures which can stop land degradation caused by soil erosion. Introduction of adaptive landscape system of agriculture in the pilot farm of the Belgorod agricultural research center allowed to minimize erosion processes, stabilize soil fertility, and significantly improve economic indicators and energy efficiency of agriculture in the economy. The area of arable land was slightly reduced, and the area of forest belts and soil protection crop rotations increased. The average yield of grain crops and sugar beets increased greatly, the use of organic and mineral fertilizers increased significantly, their payback improved, and the crop industry became profitable and cost-effective. Only through adaptive landscape agriculture it is possible to stop water erosion, create conditions for stabilizing and increasing soil fertility, ensure the biologization of agriculture and increase its economic efficiency. Ultimately, this will increase production of domestic agricultural products and increase Russia’s food security.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2020;15(2):182-190
Agricultural technologies and land reclamation
Moisture consumption by plum seedlings under drip irrigation in the Central Nonchernozem zone of Russia
Dubenok N.N., Gemonov A.V., Lebedev A.V.

The aim of the study was to establish influence of different soil moisture content and climatic factors on water consumption of plum seedlings grown in a fruit nursery in the Nonchernozem zone. According to the results of studies conducted on plum seedlings under drip irrigation in the Moscow region for two years, evapotranspiration with different precipitation availability and temperature was determined. Variability of total water consumption depending on meteorological factors and irrigation regime was considered. Studies have confirmed the increase in the value of evapotranspiration with increasing pre-irrigation threshold of humidity with low-volume drip irrigation. The maximum values of water consumption by year of research, as expected, were recorded in the most wetted variant of the experiment, where moisture content of soil root zone did not fall below 80 % of the field moisture capacity. The statistical analysis carried out did not confirm the effect of varietal characteristics on evapotranspiration, which may be associated with the use of related rootstocks and the use of seedlings with the comparable force of growth in laying the experience. Structure of evapotranspiration of plum seedlings was determined according to experimental data of two research years. Precipitation and irrigation were the most part of total water consumption.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2020;15(2):191-199
Veterinary science
Relationship between immunogenic and antigenic activity of the vaccine against colibacteriosis of animals
Galiakbarova A.A., Pirozhkov M.K.

Studies of such quality indicators as immunogenic and antigenic activity of the vaccine against colibacteriosis of animals have been carried out in experiments with laboratory animals. Immunogenic activity was determined by vaccination of white mice with different doses of the vaccine, followed by infection with virulent strains of Escherichia , producers of adhesive antigens, and determination of ID The antigenic activity of the vaccine was studied in experiment on rabbits by determining the level of antibodies to adhesive antigens in agglutination reaction in blood serum of vaccinated animals. The relationship between immunogenic and antigenic activity of the vaccine was detected by studying preventive activity of sera obtained from vaccinated rabbits in the experiment on white mice. The analysis of the obtained research results was given. The relationship between the level of antibodies to adhesive antigens in the blood serum of vaccinated animals and the immunogenic activity of the vaccine in the experiment on laboratory animals was established.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2020;15(2):200-209
Veterinary sanitary inspection
Veterinary and sanitary characteristics of sarcocystosis infected cattle meat
Seregin I.G., Baranovich E.S., Nikitchenko V.E., Nikitchenko D.V., Rystsova E.O.

The rate of sarcocystosis detection in slaughtered cattle was studied. The infection rate for slaughtered animals averaged 0.38…2.11 % of studied livestock. The location of sarcocysts in various muscle tissues of the carcass was determined. Organoleptic, physical& chemical and microbiological characteristics of beef from sick and healthy animals were compared. Detected was a decrease in sensory indicators by 0.14…0.34 points, an increase in pH - by 0.34 units, an increase in VFA - by 0.4 mg/KOH and in amino-ammonia nitrogen concentration - by 0.09 mg/%. The content of protein decreased by 0.92 %, fat - by 1.04 %, and moisture level increased by 2.90 %. At the same time, a decrease in relative bioavailability by 10.7 % and safety by 5.1×104 of meat infected with sarcocystosis as compared to meat of healthy cattle was detected. It was found out that the shelf life of chilled meat from animals infected with sarcocystosis is 1-2 days less than that of healthy ones. Based on the data obtained, proposals were developed for improving the veterinary-sanitary evaluation of meat and other products of slaughtered animals infected with sarcocystosis in order to be incorporated into the Rules of Veterinary Sanitary Examination of Meat and Meat Products.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2020;15(2):210-224

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