Vol 17, No 1 (2022)

Crop production

Influence of multicomponent fertilizers on spring rapeseed productivity

Zubkova T.V.


Field experiments were conducted on leached chernozem in conditions of forest-steppe of the Central Chernozem region in 2018-2020. Spring rapeseed cv. Rubezh was chosen as the object of the research. The processing of rapeseed plants was carried out twice: in the leaf rosette phase and growth of the central stem - according to the scheme: 1. Control (without treatment); 2. Ecolist Macro 12-4-7 (2L/ha); 3. BionexKemi (2L/ha); 4. Ecolist Macro 12-4-7+ Borogum (2L/ha + 1.0 l/ha); 5. Bionex-Kemi + Borogum (2L/ha + 1.0 L/ha). The studies conducted showed that the fertilizers used in the experiment contributed to a reduction in the growing season by 2-3 days. The treatment of spring rapeseed plants with agents positively affected both the indicators of the crop structure and, in general, the productivity of spring rapeseed. Foliar top dressing with the studied fertilizers contributed to greater fruit setting and preservation of the pods. In comparison with the control, the maximum increase - 1.80 c/ha and 1.62 c/ha - was obtained when using Ecolist Macro 12-4-7+ Borogum fertilizer complex and Bionex-Kemi + Borogum, respectively. The studied multicomponent fertilizers resulted in reducing of protein in spring rapeseed seeds, but significantly increased the oil content. The maximum oil yield was obtained from the use of a mixture of Ecolist Macro 12-4-7+ Borogum (769.4 kg/ha).

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(1):7-19
pages 7-19 views

Effects for barley growth and development of single exposure to low-temperature argon plasma at different organogenesis stages

Petrukhina D.I., Tkhorik O.V., Shishko V.I., Kharlamov V.A., Tsygvintsev P.N.


The paper presents the vegetation experiments results on the low-temperature argon plasma effect on barley plants ( Hordeum vulgare L.) of the Vladimir cultivar and its influence on morphophysiological parameters and yield. Plasma treatment was once at three organogenesis stages of barley plants: 3rd leaf, tillering and booting. Plasma exposure was 15 and 30 min. The barley plants were grown to full maturity. Analysis of barley yield structure did not reveal clear patterns in the change in most parameters resulted from the plasma treatment. However, 15 min plasma exposure on barley plants in the critical development stage (3rd leaf) increased by 77.8 % (p < 0.05) the root weight of plants compared with control. After treatment at the tillering stage, the number of spikelets per main stem ear increased by 18.5 % (p < 0.001) after 15 min plasma exposure, and by 11.17 % (p < 0.05) after 30 min exposure. An increase in the number of productive stems and the number of grains per lateral stem ear was observed. At the same time, 30 min exposure in the 3rd leaf stage reduced by 7 % (p < 0.05) the plant height. And the treatment in the tillering stage reduced by 39 % (p < 0.01) the root weight of barley plants. The effect of low-temperature plasma on barley plants at the booting stage was less expressed to the plasma effect at earlier development stages. This can be explained by the lower sensitivity of this stage of organogenesis. The obtained effects of single exposure to low-temperature argon plasma at different organogenesis stages of barley plants can be useful to increase barley yields.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(1):20-30
pages 20-30 views

Genetics and plant breeding

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of potato Solanum tuberosum L. with constructs carrying the strong plant-derived promoter pro-SmAMP1 from Stellaria media L.

Khaliluev M.R., Kharchenko P.N., Ovchinnikova V.N.


The effectiveness of plant genetic transformation is determined by the choice of genetic structures and their regulatory sequences that cause a high and stable expression level of heterologous genes. In this regard, the actual task of biotechnology is the use of highly effective plant promoters. The choice of promoter determines not only the level of the expression gene, but also the effectiveness of genetic transformation. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the influence of explant type and 5´-deletion variants of the plant strong pro-SmAMP1 promoter, on the Agrobacterium -mediated transformation efficiency of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Udacha. To analyze the regenerative capacity of potato stem and leaf explants, AGL0 strain carrying constructs containing the 5’-deletion variants of the promoter fragment of gene encoding antimicrobial peptide from Stellaria media L. ( pro-SmAMP1 ) was carried out. Four genetic constructs based on the plant expression vector pCAMBIA1381Z were used in this work, containing the selectable gene hptII and reporter gene uidA under different 5’-deletion variants of the pro-SmAMP1 promoter (-442, -675, -732 and -1196 bp relative to the transcription initiation site); as well as two binary vectors based on the expression vector pCAMBIA1302 with 5’-deletion pro-SmAMP1 promoter variants (-442 and -1196 bp), controlling the expression of gfp reporter gene. It was found that the effectiveness of Agrobacterium -mediated transformation depended on the type of genetic construction used, but not on the type of explant being cultivated. The insertion of the promoter region pro-SmAMP1 gene, hptII , as well as the absence of the bacterial Vir E gene was confirmed by PCR. Depending on the type of genetic construct, the transformation efficiency for the reporter gene varied from 2.0 to 7.2 %. The results are compared with previously conducted few studies, according to which the choice of promoter determines not only the expression level of marker genes, but also has a significant influence on the genetic transformation efficiency.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(1):31-47
pages 31-47 views

Plant protection

Molecular Analysis of Parasitoid Flies Tachinidae

Arafa E.E.


The parasitoids from Tachinidae family have important role in biological control; nevertheless, the phylogenetic relationships of supra genera groups are poorly studied. Here, we present phylogenetic analyses of the family based on molecular data. 73 species of parasitoid flies belonging to 30 tachinid genera, including the four currently recognized subfamilies (Dexiinae, Exoristinae, Phasiinae, Tachininae) and 20 tribes were analyzed in the molecular study. The Tachinidae are reconstructed as a monophyletic assemblage based on morphological data and with four nonhomoplasious apomorphies (synapomorphies). Monophyly is well supported by a bootstrap value. Our morphological analysis generally supports the subfamily grouping Dexiinae + Phasiinae, while Tachininae + Exoristinae is not supported as one group, and with only the Exoristinae and the Phasiinae reconstructed as monophyletic assemblages. The Dexiinae, which were previously considered a wellestablished monophyletic assemblage (except for few studies), are reconstructed as polyparaphyletic with respect to the Phasiinae. The Tachininae are reconstructed as a paraphyletic grade, while monophyly of Exoristinae was recovered except genus Admontia Brauer & Bergenstamm, which arose within subfamily Tachininae. In contrast to molecular analysis, all subfamilies are polyparaphyletic groups in which they interact with each other, with the exception of Phasiinae, which includes most of its taxa in a monophyletic group.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(1):48-61
pages 48-61 views

Landscaping of settlements

Assessment of arboreal and shrubby plants widely used in greening of Orenburg by methods of ecological and phenological monitoring

Nazarova N.M., Fedorova D.G.


Green spaces in the urban environment are oppressed due to the high anthropogenic load in industrial cities. Methods of ecological and phenological monitoring (registration of phenological phases, study of the degree of flowering and fruiting) allow to assess influence of the environment on plant communities of urban ecosystems. The purpose was to study the features of seasonal development of some widespread woody and shrubby plants in the landscaping of Orenburg through ecological and phenological monitoring. Within the framework of this work, the course of seasonal development of 5 species of woody and shrubby plants with registering 6 vegetative phases and 4 generative phases of life cycles was studied. The intensity of their flowering was assessed and the level of fruiting was determined as indicators of their stable development in urban conditions. According to the results of the observations, only Aronia mitschurinii was found to be the most favorable type due to nature of its phenological developmen. Aronia mitschurinii, Sorbus aucuparia, Crataegus sanguinea and Syringa vulgaris have the best decorative characteristics, as well as a high level of fruiting. These species are characterized by high ecological plasticity. Therefore, despite the increasing rates of anthropogenic load, they are able to form a full-fledged green framework of the urban environment and act as biological filters of atmospheric air in the Orenburg region.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(1):62-71
pages 62-71 views

Monitoring the state of woody plants in railway impact zone in the Kola Polar region

Sviatkovskaya E.A., Saltan N.V., Umanets M.S., Trostenyuk N.N.


The areas adjacent to the railway stations are part of the urban greening and are considered as a single space that meets the high-quality standards of the urban environment. Monitoring studies (2018-2021) were carried out on the state of native and introduced species of woody plants growing along the railway tracks in the forecourt territories of the cities of the Kola Arctic (Murmansk, Olenegorsk, Apatity, Polyarnye Zori, Kandalaksha) to identify resistant species to this type of pollution. The assessment of the state of woody plants was carried out visually according to the method of V.S. Nikolaevsky and H.G. Yakubov. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics were given for each plant. The average score of the state for the most common tree species was calculated. Some agrochemical soil indicators have been determined. As a result of monitoring studies of green spaces, a slight increase in species diversity was revealed (22 species - 2 018, 24 species - 2 021). The state of woody plants in the railway impact zone depended on level of anthropogenic loads, age of plantations, and regularity of care. A slight increase in the share of the category of plants «without signs of weakening» was noted, with a significant increase in the category «highly weakened» (from 31.0 to 51.7 %). The indicator for the categories «shrinking» and «dead wood» has changed slightly. The weighted average score of the state of the most common tree species showed no pronounced changes. The nutritional status of soils was characterized by a low level of availability of nitrogenous compounds, changes in soil acidity were found. With regular care, plants can move from one category to another. Existing species of woody plants are stable in these environmental conditions and can be recommended for landscaping objects of this purpose.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(1):72-89
pages 72-89 views

Protective afforestation

Comparative characteristics of planting material of silver birch grown from seeds of autumn and spring sowing

Kabanova S.A., Kabanov A.N., Danchenko M.A., Kochegarov I.S.


Annual seedlings of silver birch ( Betula pendula Roth.), grown from seeds of autumn and spring sowing period, were analyzed. Planting material was kept in protected ground. Before sowing, various growth substances were incorporated into the soil - mineral and organic fertilizers, forest soil. It was revealed that autumn sowing increased the height of seedlings 1.03…1.66-fold in the variants compared to the control, except for the variants with the use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, where the largest number of plants per unit area was observed. In the variants with Humatophosphate, boric acid, Trichocin, humus and forest soil, from 60 to 100 % of seedlings reached standard values in a year. A similar experiment with the same growth substances, but spring sowing of seeds, showed a significant lag in seedling growth. The use of nitrogen fertilizer in spring, in contrast to the autumn period, had a positive effect on plant height, annual seedlings had the highest height in the experiment - 14.1 cm. Seedlings in variants with humus and forest soil also had good indicators. All variants overtook the control seedlings in height by 1.06…2.68 times. Therefore, the time of sowing seeds is important - all indicators of autumn seedlings significantly exceed the similar ones of spring seedlings. This fact is explained by several reasons: during the autumn period, the seeds are sown freshly harvested, they undergo pre-sowing preparation (snowing and stratification) in natural conditions, the seeds are not stored, in case of violation of which the seeds significantly lose their germination capacity. In addition, the seeds begin to germinate and shoots begin to grow much earlier than if they were sown in the spring. Shoots are not exposed to late spring frosts, as they are protected by covering material.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(1):90-103
pages 90-103 views

Animal breeding

Efficiency of meat-fattening rabbits farmed by different keeping technologies

Kvartnikova E.G., Shastina E.V.


In Russia, different technologies are used for keeping commercial young animals in the production of rabbit meat. The main ones are in rooms with a controlled microclimate (imported young rabbits) and sheds (domestic breeds). The aim of the study was to establish the dominant factors that determine efficiency of rabbit meat production under different keeping technologies and dry feeding. Experimental studies were conducted according to classical zootechnical methods. The experiment in the room with controlled conditions was carried out on crossbred young animals - f rom Californian and New Zealand white breeds, which were imported from France in 2010; the experiment on domestic breed - Soviet chinchilla - was carried out under shed keeping technology. During the fattening period all rabbits were fed with complete granulated compound feed with an identical ratio of nutrients: 16.0 % protein and 17.5 % fiber for crossbred rabbits; 16.4 % protein and 17.9 % fiber for Soviet chinchilla rabbits. Slaughter of Soviet chinchilla rabbits and crossbred rabbits for meat was carried out at the age of 90 and 77 days, respectively. Analysis of the dynamics of live weight showed that at the age of 45 days and at the time of slaughter crossbred young rabbits exceeded Soviet chinchilla rabbits by 204.5 g and 240.0 g, respectively. Meanwhile, the relative growth of crossbred rabbits was not much higher than this indicator in Soviet chinchilla rabbits (by 3.4 and 4.1 %, respectively). The pre-slaughter weight was also significantly higher in crossbred animals, and the carcass weight was significantly higher in Soviet chinchilla rabbits. Accordingly, in the Soviet chinchilla the slaughter yield was 9.2 % higher than that of the crossbred rabbits, that is in meat production in the Soviet chinchilla more organic matter goes into products and less to waste. This testifies to the fact that by the age of 77 days the crossbred rabbits did not realize their full meat potential. Thus, considering the increased energy costs in buildings with a controlled microclimate, both technologies for keeping commercial young rabbits have the same chances in the production of rabbit meat.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(1):104-111
pages 104-111 views

Features of development of visceral organs in embryos of egg cross chickens ‘Lohmann Brown’ under red and green monochromatic LED lighting

Chelnokova M.I., Chelnokov A.A.


New data on the features of development of visceral organs in embryos of egg cross chickens ‘Lohmann Brown’ under red and green monochromatic LED lighting were obtained. The effect of two continuous LED lighting modes has been studied: experimental modes - r ed and green light, control - d arkness. The absolute values of weight dimensions and specific growth rate (according to the Schmalhausen-Brody formula) of heart, muscular stomach, liver of chicken embryos were estimated using morphometric methods. The studies proved that red and green LED lighting has a stimulating effect on the embryonic development of visceral organs (heart, muscular stomach, liver) in ‘Lohmann Brown’ egg cross compared to the control (darkness). Under red and green LED stimulation, chicken embryos prevailed in the heart mass from the 14th to the 20th day of embryogenesis. The muscular stomach and liver of chicken embryos developed more intensively under red illumination on the 18th and 20th days, and under green illumination - a similar effect on the muscular stomach was noted on the 19th and 20th days, on the liver - o n the 20th day. It has been established that in the early ontogenesis of ‘Lohmann Brown’ chickens there were several critical stages (phases). They fall on different days of development and characterize the features of rhythmicity in growth processes of visceral organs in chicken embryogenesis under LED stimulation of red and green spectrum. Chicken embryos under red and green illumination had the highest growth rate of heart on the 17th and 20th day, respectively; muscular stomach under red illumination - o n the 17th and 20th days, liver - on the 16th and 17th day under red and green illumination. By the hatching period on the 20th day, there were no differences in the development of visceral organs of chicken embryos depending on red and green light spectrum. The hatching of ‘Lohmann Brown’ chicken embryos exposed to red and green light occurred on the 20th day of incubation - a day earlier than under control conditions (darkness). The proposed biological causes underlying the effect of monochromatic light of different color spectrum on embryogenesis of chicken embryo and organs are discussed.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(1):112-123
pages 112-123 views

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