Vol 14, No 1 (2019)

Crop production
EFFECT OF BETA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID ON ACTIVITY OF PEROXIDASE AND POLYPHENOL OXIDASE ENZYMES IN CUCUMBER INFECTED WITH NEMATODE MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA
Mahmoudi N.
Abstract

Beta-amino-butyric acid is introduced as an inducer of resistance in plants against plant pathogens. In this research, the induction of some defensive compounds including peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase enzymes by this compound against the rootstock node-producing nematode Meloidogyne javanica in cucumber was investigated. The results showed that inoculation of cucumber roots infected with root-knot nematode with the chemical composition of BABA from the first day after inoculation increased the activity of peroxidase enzyme and reached its maximum on the fourth day of this activity. Induction of the activity of polyphenol oxidase enzyme showed a gradual increase with a significant difference in comparison to the control and healthy plants and reached the maximum on the fourth day. The electrophoresis of peroxidase isozymes showed that isozyme peroxidase forms in cucumber roots induced by BABA were much more potent than pathogen-induced isozymes. In plants treated with nematode plus BABA, two isozymes were Rf = 00.31 and Rf = 34/0, which were stronger than control (inoculated with nematode).

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(1):7-17
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EVALUATION OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL RESISTANCE PARAMETERS TO CHLORIDE SALINATION IN DIFFERENT WHEAT GENOTYPES
Kononenko N.V., Dilovarova T.A., Kanavsky R.V., Lebedev S.V., Baranova E.N., Fedoreeva L.I.
Abstract

Determining salt tolerance potential in wheat is one of the most important problems in breeding practice for areas with primary and secondary salinity. Presence of large areas of saline soils results in inhibition of growth, development and stability in obtaining high yields of agricultural plants. Therefore, there is a need for a comprehensive studying and improving of diagnostic methods during early growth stages. Different genotypes of wheat Triticum aestivum Host. and Triticum durum Desf. were used to identify salt tolerance markers. Both morphometric and some biochemical indicators of wheat varieties were used as salt tolerance markers. At this stage, it was shown that a comprehensive description of wheat varieties is needed to assess resistance of wheat varieties to chloride salinity.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(1):18-39
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FORMATION OF PLUM SEEDLINGS UNDER DRIP IRRIGATION IN CENTRAL NON-BLACK SOIL REGION OF RUSSIA
Dubenok N.N., Gemonov A.V., Lebedev A.V., Glushenkova E.V.
Abstract

The article presents the results of studying formation of plum seedlings under drip irrigation in conditions of the Central Non-Black Soil Region of Russia. Field research was carried out on the territory of the training and experimental farming, fruit-growing laboratory “Michurinsky Garden” of the Russian State Agrarian University - Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy. The factors studied were soil irrigation regimes (60-80, 70-90, 80-100% of the lowest moisture capacity) and plum varieties (“Utro” and “Mashenka”). The results of the experiment showed that plum seedlings grown under conditions of insufficient and uneven moistening were characterized by the lowest biometric indices. The most severe lack of soil moisture was observed during intensive growth (May - early June). Insufficient and uneven moistening with intervals of reduced moistening leads to several growth waves in plants. In the seedlings grown under drip irrigation the second and third waves of growth were not observed. In irrigation variants, the root system of seedlings was mainly located in the upper arable layer of the soil which was best supplied with nutrients, had the lowest density and favorable air regime. Location of root system along the drip line and at the depth of 30 cm facilitated transferring seedlings to nurseries and ensured less damage to them during transplantation.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(1):40-48
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Botany
ECOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCENOTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ROSA ACICULARIS L. IN EKATERINBURG FOREST PARK ZONE
Tishkina E.A., Chermnykh A.I.
Abstract

Analysis of forest areas in forest parks of Ekaterinburg was carried out based on GIS database of AWP Lesfond program. A database of distribution of undergrowth species in forest parks was formed and then analyzed with Microsoft Excel. Regularities in the distribution of local and introductory undergrowth species in pine forests of Ekaterinburg were determined. The area of pine forests having undergrowth of twelve aboriginal, two invasive species and ten species in artificial plantings in six forest parks of Ekaterinburg - Kalinovsky, Moskovsky, Yuzhny, Nizhneisetsky, Shuvakishsky and im. Lesovodov Rossii - was determined. Analysis of the data showed that the area covered with prickly wild rose ( Rosa acicularis ) constituted 811.4 hectares of all the undergrowth territory (9848.45 hectares), but its distribution in forest park was extremely heterogeneous. Rosa acicularis occurs in the Nizhneisetskiy forest park more often than in other forest parks (273.1 ha). This species is common in nine types of forest, its ecological and phytocenotic distribution optimum is berry pine forest with 0.6-0.9 stand of trees. Presence of prickly wild rose in undergrowth and condition of its cenopopulations indicate a typical composition of plants in the forest park zone of Ekaterinburg. In the forest parks studied, Rosa acicularis is one of the co-edificators in indigenous forest types, along with Sorbus aucuparia , Rubus idaeus , Prunus padus , Salix caprea , Chamaecytisus ruthenicus , Rosa acicularis . The data given on the calculation of forest areas with prickly wild rose are the basis for inventory of valuable medicinal raw materials and ready-made decorative forms for the introduction of urban landscaping.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(1):49-56
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Veterinary science
ASSESSMENT OF NITRITE LEVEL - NITRIC OXIDE DERIVATIVE - IN HORSES WITH INTESTINAL COLIC BY ESR SPECTROSCOPY
Artyushina Z.S., Abramov P.N., Polyansky N.B., Tkachev N.A., Serezhenkov V.A.
Abstract

The pathogenesis of diseases of the digestive tract of horses, accompanied by the development of inflammation and oxidative stress, can be associated with a lack of nitrogen monoxide, which controls a variety of signaling pathways in the body. Nitrogen monoxide (NO) takes part in the work of the immune and nervous systems, its level directly determines the tone of all blood vessels and the course of many pathological processes. NO should be considered as one of the most important factors in the protection of the gastric and intestinal mucosa. The article describes in detail the method for determining the level of nitrite-nitric oxide metabolite - in diseases of horses with the symptom complex of “true” colic, and also presents the results of measurements of nitrite in the serum of healthy animals of two age groups: 1-5 years and 6-25 years and animals with pathology. The concentration of nitrite in blood serum in horses of the age group of 6-25 years was 3.42 ± 4.22 μM, while in young animals (1-5 years) the level of this indicator was 8.24 ± 5.42 μM, which is 2,4 times higher. A sharp decrease of nitrite was noted in all horses with intestinal diseases of 2.07 ± 0.9 μM, especially with meteorism 0.6 ± 0.4 μM and spastic colic 1.78 ± 0.5 μM. These facts determine the diagnostic and prognostic value of nitric oxide as a biomarker for the regulation of intestinal motility in normal and pathological conditions.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(1):57-65
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THE RESULTS OF THE EMBRYO TRANSFER TO HEIFERS FROM THE AYRSHIRE BREED
Nimbona C., Kulikova N.I., Butore J., Ntunzwenimana M.
Abstract

Dairy cattle’s breeding is an important industry, since it is providing milk and meat to population. Modern cows are significantly different from their ancestors in biology, behavior and in productivity. The scientific approach to feeding, condition of content and formation of focused heredity contributed to increasing the cows’ productivity. During the mammary gland formation and sexual cycles manifestation, puberty occurs, which makes it possible to obtain offspring and secretion of milk for feeding calves. The modern cows are capable of producing milk for their calves and for feeding people. The appearance of record cows, giving about 100 kg per day, and during lactation more than 32 tons of milk serves as an example for achieving such indicators of production. There are negative effects in reproduction biology, which takes place in modern cattle breeding. In order to breed highly productive cows, it is important to increase their livestock by intensive selection. Modernity is such that fertility is reduced due to cows’ reproductive functions inhibition. Modern practice shows that it is possible to introduce methods of obtaining several calves from one cow. It is generally accepted for this purpose use new reproduction methods, for example transplantation of embryos with high genetic potential. This technique is widely used in biotechnology of cows breeding. We have tested the method of preparing and conducting embryo transfer to heifers from 13 to 16 months old in the Kuban Agro-Association. The article presents indicators of heifer. It was revealed that not all animals reacted positively to superstimulation. Embryo transplantation showed that 35.1% of embryos survived after embryo transfer. Economic calculations have shown that for the rapid formation of a highly productive herd on the farm, it is advisable to use Ayrshire breed heifers capable of raising embryos and giving birth to healthy calves as recipients.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(1):66-72
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ANALYSIS OF SKIN PATTERNS OF GERMAN SHEPHERD’S RHINARIUM IN COMPARATIVE ASPECT
Spotkai S.E., Lykhina L.Y.
Abstract

The popularity of the German Shepherd breed and its use in many areas of human life creates the need to search for new identification methods to establish ownership. The identification methods available, such as chipping and marking, have several disadvantages. The method of dogs’ identification by rhinarium’s imprint is comparatively cheap and reliable. Papillary patterns reflected on rhinarium’s imprint are relatively constant, and have common and particular signs of difference, which make it possible to distinguish the impression of one dog from another. Dogs of the same breed have a standardized exterior, that is, similarity in external characters, which suggests that there are similarities between common and particular characteristics within the same breed. It is found that imprints of the rhinarium of German shepherd breed dogs, obtained from dogs of different origin, housing and feeding conditions, have common features of papillary patterns peculiar to the given breed. The presented results of the comparison of skin patterns of the rhinarium show that this breed is characterized by a straight, straight round-pointed and V-shaped forms of the nose symmetry line, the majority of the representatives of the breed have prints heavily spotted with lines and, as a rule, have 2 branches of the line of symmetry, which proves the presence of breed characteristics and allows for the use of prints in forensic and forensic veterinary identification of dogs.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(1):73-80
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DE RITIS RATIO IN STOMACH TISSUES IN MIXED-AGE PURE-BRED PIGS, GROWN UP IN THE CONDITIONS OF DIFFERENT FARMS
Sudakova D.P., Terentyeva M.G., Mardaryeva N.V.
Abstract

The nature and intensity of age-related changes in the De Ritis coefficient, or the ratio of the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase, in the tissues of the diverticulum, cardiac, fundal and pyloric parts of the stomach of purebred different-age pigs grown in different farms were studied. The activity of enzymes was determined by spectrophotometric method in the scientific laboratory of the “Chuvash State Agricultural Academy”. It was revealed that during the four-week weaning of pigs (under growing conditions of the pig complex), the nature and intensity of the age-related changes of the studied indicator have their own characteristics. At the same time, the value of the coefficient becomes more stable in piglets of both farms that are in the definitive or plant phase of feeding. The most intensive age-related changes in the De Ritis coefficient of purebred piglets grown under the conditions of the Student Scientific and Production Center “Student” are determined in the tissues of the diverticulum in the first phase of the milk-definitive diet (reduced by 33.8%). In the tissues of the cardiac part, in the second phase of the milk supply (increased by 31.2%). In the tissues of the fundus of the stomach, the De Ritis coefficient is more pronouncedly changing in the milky phase (increased by 2.3 times). In the tissues of the pyloric part - in the colostrum-milky phase of nutrition (increased by 2.1 times). The most intense age-related changes in the De Ritis coefficient of purebred piglets grown under pig farm conditions are detected in the tissues of the diverticulum in the first definitive phase of nutrition (increased by 1.7 times). In the tissues of the cardiac part of the stomach - in the first definitive phase of nutrition (increased by 3.4 times). In the tissues of the fundus of the stomach in piglets, the value of the coefficient changes more intensively only in the colostrum-milky phase of the diet (decreased by 51.4%). In the tissues of the pyloric part of the stomach, De Ritis coefficient with a high intensity changes in the second and third phases of the milk supply (increased by 3.0 times).

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(1):81-89
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Veterinary sanitary inspection
ANALYSIS AND PREVENTION OF RISKS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF LABORATORY MICROBIOLOGICAL CULTURE MEDIA BY FMEA METHOD
Nikitchenko V.E., Rystsova E.O., Chernysheva A.N.
Abstract

At all stages of the production of microbiological nutrient media (MNM), the manufacturer, and in particular, the microbiological laboratories that manufacture the media on site, face many operational risks. The presence of such risks, in almost every critical point of production and further operation of the MNM, is due to the presence of common basic requirements for all MNM, which must be taken into account and respected during their development and preparation; as well as the complexity and laboriousness of the very process of manufacturing high-quality differential-diagnostic and other nutrient media, requiring the availability of all the components necessary for preparing these media, equipment, sterile conditions and qualified personnel. In this regard, there is a need to search for effective methods to identify and prevent undesirable situations associated with the production and use of MNM. The aim of this work was to adapt the risk assessment methodology based on the expert method for analyzing the types and consequences of FMEA failures (Failure Mode Effect Analysis) set out in GOST R ISO 31010-2011 for the needs of microbiological laboratories, including those for veterinary and sanitary expertise, producing microbiological nutrient environments and using them. As part of this work, a comparative analysis of risk assessment methods was carried out in order to select the optimal one; adaptation of the QMS principle - risk-oriented thinking and the FMEA method for risk assessment in the implementation of MNM manufacturing processes in a microbiological laboratory (for example, solid agar media); risk assessment protocol forms were developed; calculations of a quantitative assessment of risk levels were carried out in order to determine the need for preventive actions and their implementation in order to minimize the negative consequences of risk in case of its implementation using the developed protocols. The results showed that this technique can be successfully implemented and used in the claimed area.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2019;14(1):90-98
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