No 4 (2016)

Articles
Megacities 2050: from Urbanization Threats to Sustainable Urban Development
Vasenev V.I., Dovletyarova E.A., Plyushchikov V.G., Valentini R.
Abstract
Urbanization is a global land-use change tendency, responsible for substantial environmental changes. At the same time urban ecosystems are vulnerable to global changes, and their adaptation is necessary to maintain sustainable functionality and important ecosystem services. Sustainable urban development demands for integration of innovative green technologies and natural-based solutions in urban management, which is only possible through a collaboration of scientists, landscape designers, civil engineers and policy-makers.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2016;(4):7-9
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Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Emission from Lawn Ecosystem with Contrasting Soil Profiles
Rationale Bhoobun B., Vasenev V.I., Hajiaghayeva R.A.
Abstract
Land-use change is among the main factors contributing to climate change. Urbanization is a land-use change pathway, conjugate with a rapid growth of urban territory and irreversible change of soil features and functioning. Greenhouse gases’ emissions (primarily CO2 emission) and carbon sequestration are among important soil functions. Ecological risks of increased CO2 emissions in urban soils are determined by different factors of anthropogenic impact. This paper aims to analyze the impact of different soil constructions on CO2 emissions from urban lawns. The research plot is situated in northern Administrative district of Moscow (NAD) and included urban soil constructions with organic layers of different genesis (turf, sand-turf mixtures and soils-sand mixtures) and of different depth (5, 10 and 20 cm). As a result an average CO2 emission from turf (20 cm dept of organic layer) was 22 g/m2 day, whereas the sand-turf mixture (10 cm of the organic layer) emitted 16.15 and peat soil (5 cm of organic layer) - 19.23 g/m2 day respectively. Therefore, was observed dependence of CO2 emissions on genesis and depth of soil organic layers. Also was revealed dependence of CO2 emissions on climate conditions for nine-months of observations.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2016;(4):10-17
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Soil-Ecological Characteristics of the Recreational Forest Ecosystems in Moscow
Dovletyarova E.A., Mosina L.V., Paltseva A., Morin T., Petrovskaya P.A.
Abstract
To understand the soil ecology of the forest ecosystem, the dynamics of soil-ecological indicators in the soil-plant system were studied through physical, chemical and biological parameters at various sites of the Forest Experimental Station of the Russian State Agrarian University of Moscow Agricultural Academy; a unique forest ecosystem known for its heavy metal pollution and unregulated recreation. The results showed that soil compaction had the strongest ability to increase risk of heavy metal mobility. Recreational activity caused a 2-3-fold increase in the density of the soil, resulting in poor aeration and significant heavy metal contamination, affecting the stability and functioning of the green spaces. Moreover, the proximity of the urban environment had a negative effect on the state of the stand. The maximum heavy metal migration capacity determined by biological uptake was found in the root systems of 70-80-year-old oak tree stands and the minimum, in the roots of pine and birch phytocoenosis. The systems’ normal functions were hindered due to reduction in microbial activity.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2016;(4):18-26
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Soil and Forest Characteristics of the Sample Plots in the Conditions of Sod-Podzolic Soils of the Forest Experimental Garden, Russian State Agrarian University - Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy
Volkov S.N., Gemonov A.V., Fedorova T.A., Terekhin A.A.
Abstract
In this paper, the influence of sod-podzolic soils with different expression of sod and podzolic processes of soil formation the formation of pure coniferous and deciduous, and mixed forest stands in terms of educational scientific consulting center “the Forest experimental cottage”. Identified the relationship of physico-chemical properties of soil from silvicultural and forest inventory indices of the studied stands. In this regard, was a complex of forests and soil studies, which include the laying of soil profiles with detailed description of the soil horizons, the holding of descriptions of woody vegetation with the establishment of the age, vertical and horizontal structure of forest stands growing.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2016;(4):27-35
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Landscape Urbanism in the Center of Moscow: New Hybrid Models of Park Areas
Zaykova E.Y.
Abstract
It is necessary to reconsider the role of natural areas and landscape approaches to improve the quality of urban environment for a sustainable development of modern cities. The development of city’s green infrastructure, what is integrated in “landscape urbanism” term, implies the restoration of environment natural components by expansion of urban boundaries or searching for reserved areas of “abandoned” landscape in a city structure [10]. Creating a new development strategy of natural environment territories, in terms of post-industrial reality and progressive urbanization is the part of city's spatial development that must be adapted and supplied carefully. It is necessary to search for new development models of urban space, where the landscape typology and nature features are the means of environment identity [13]. The rapid degradation of natural areas, as a result of “densification” of a city and building development in the largest cities of Russia, primary Moscow, was observed from the beggining of 90-ies of the 20th century. It has led to the disappearance of natural areas, what influenced an environmental stress strengthening in different parts of an urban space, especially in its center, and strong recreational pressure on park areas, that are the most popular within a city. For changing this situation and creating a new scenario for parks development in the center of Moscow, it is necessary to form new urban objects, both in the center and in the middle and peripheral parts of the city. Scenario of sustainable urban development at different urban levels includes innovative ideas for life harmonization, associated with the concept of “living” cities, sustainable urbanization, preservation of historical heritage and new building technologies [5].
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2016;(4):36-44
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Monitoring, Restoration and Maintenance of Aged Trees in Summer and Mikhailovsky Gardens of St. Petersburg
Cherdantseva O.A., Lukmazova E.A., Dmitrieva A.G., Dubrovina T.A.
Abstract
The image of the Summer Garden is inseparable from the image of St. Petersburg. It was survived together with the city of the period of formation, rapid flourishing, change of rulers, change, economic systems, natural and military disasters. In June 2009, Russian Museum proceeded to largest restoration on the reconstruction of the memorial ensemble of the Summer garden. The article presents the results of inspection condition of old-growth trees in Summer and Mikhailovsky Gardens and analyze inventory data from 1962 to 2014, the dynamics of change in the number of trees.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2016;(4):45-50
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Greening as an Element of Sustainable Urban Development: Valuation of Economic Feasibility, Policyassessment and Practical Examples
Alekseeva I.S., Menshikh D.A., Kudryavtseva O.V.
Abstract
The article reveals the importance of urban greening as a part of sustainable urban development concept. We examinethe ecological, social, cultural, spatial benefits of urban greening promotionas well as the possible constrains to urban space vegetating. It is shown that the assessment of tree benefits can be important for implementation of sustainable urban development. In turn,appropriate urban greening assessment is also important. The article provides existing urban greening assessment methods and their implementation in real-life practices.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2016;(4):51-62
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The Main Design Principles of Hybrid Spaces in Terms of the Urban Planning Regeneration
Krasilnikova E.E., Klimov D.V.
Abstract
Urban planning regeneration is a viable mechanism contributing to the urban development during complex reconstruction of the existing city space-planning structure. The dynamics of changing of urban planning theories and practices are characterized by an integral approach to city development through contradictory processes: intensification of globalization processes on the one hand; searching for identity on the other hand. Formation of hybrid spaces in urban fabric of modern cities is relevant and has significant socio-economic importance to the process of urban planning regeneration. In the context of permeability theory hybridity is determined as multi-layer, multi-functional feature of urban space, where there is no clear separation between public and private; buildings and facilities forming the structure are combined by multilevel public space where its virtual perception is also vey the important as well as its information capacity and its transformation ability. Hybrid spaces are multifunctional architectural and landscape entities, designed by applying the landscape urbanism approach and having the spatial connectivity with adjacent areas. The hybrid spaces are very importantt for the city economy, as they are development drivers to spatial, social and public changes. This research is aimed at defining modern design principles of hybrid spaces in terms of urban planning regeneration. The paper focuses on the principles of hybrid urban spaces design in the context of landscape urbanism such as the integration of dwelling areas and public spaces through the green infrastructure.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2016;(4):63-74
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Analyzing the Influence of Diatomite and Mineral Fertilizers on the Features of Cadmium-Contaminated Urban Lawns
Gosse D.D., Vasenev V.I., Afonina A.K., Shepeleva A.S.
Abstract
Contamination with heavy metals is among key anthropogenic pressures, experienced by urban lawns. It results in depletion of their environmental quality and functions. Implementation of fertilizers, containing silicon, is a promising approach to increase urban lawns’ sustainability to heavy metals’ pollution. Based on the field experiment, an influence of cadmium contamination on the chemical features and biomass quality of modeled urban green lawn ecosystems was studied. We demonstrated an increase of cadmium consumption by biomass on the second year of observations as the result of diatomite implementation together with mineral fertilizers. Both total sugar and disaccharides’ content in biomass was 15-20% higher for the contaminated plots where diatomite was implemented together with mineral fertilizers, compared to the uncontaminated control. This evidences a positive effect of the implemented reclaiming on stress tolerance of the green lawns.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2016;(4):75-84
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The Problem of Dust Storms: Protection Methods and Macro-Structures in Landscape Architecture
Abdegalieva A.E., Zaykova E.Y.
Abstract
For people living in arid areas with an arid climate and constant dust-storms, there is a need to hide from the wind flow arises very often. Dust storms occur continuously on our planet, and the use of its power and the wind force developssustainably in the modern world. Sustainable development - is a model of natural resources use, the model of interaction between a human and nature, a model of civilization progress on the basis of innovation, which is achieved by quenching the vital needs of the modern generation along with environment saving, strengthening personal and public health, without losing this opportunity for future generations. Studied foreign experience allows to propose new methods of dealing with dust storms, as well as the new form of protective structures in urban space with the use of modern means of landscape design.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2016;(4):85-93
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Basal Respiration as a Proxy to Understand Spatial Trends in CO2 Emissions in the Moscow Region
Vasenev V.I., Stoorvogel J.J., Plyushchikov V.G., Ananyeva N.D., Ivashchenko K.V., Romzaykina O.N.
Abstract
Soil respiration (Rs) is an important terrestrial CO2 efflux and receives significant attention at different scale levels. However, the sampling density is limited and global Rs databases are biased towards natural ecosystems. Urbanization is among the most important current land-use trends and its role will likely grow in the future. Urban soils store considerable amount of carbon and are very heterogeneous and dynamic, which affects Rs. Our understanding of the Rs spatial variability is limited, especially for the regions with heterogeneous bioclimatic conditions and high urbanization level. The methodological constraints of direct Rs measurements in the field limit the number of observations. As an alternative approach to approximate the spatial variability of Rs, we used basal respiration (BR) as an indirect measurement. We implemented digital soil mapping technique to map BR as a proxy of Rs in a heterogeneous and urbanized Moscow Region. Topsoil and subsoils BR maps were developed for the region and spatial variability per land-use and soil type was analyzed. BR averaged for the urban areas was lower than in forests and meadows, however, urban areas became the hotspots of BR’s spatial variability in the region. Considerable contribution of subsoil layers to the total BR was also found with the maximal 30% contribution in urban soils. Although the absolute levels of respiration remained uncertain, the spatial patterns of BR are likely to correspond well with Rs patterns, determined by soil type, land use and allocation of urban areas.
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2016;(4):94-107
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Our authors
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Abstract
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2016;(4):108-110
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