Vol 17, No 3 (2022)

Crop production

Promising cultivars of winter triticale for grain production in the north-west of the Astrakhan region

Fedorova V.A.


Triticale, due to its specific properties to form stable grain yields in the zones with risky agriculture, should find wider application in acutely arid conditions. Therefore, the use of highly productive cultivars of winter triticale in semi-desert zone of the north-west of the Astrakhan region is relevant. The aim of the research was a comprehensive assessment of promising winter triticale cultivars of different ecological and geographical origin for adaptability to stressful meteorological factors in semi-desert zone of the northwestern Astrakhan region. To determine the main indicators of adaptability (winter hardiness, plasticity, stability, stress tolerance, genetic flexibility), six promising winter triticale cultivars (Tribun, Interes, PRAG 152, Khleborob, Zhnets and Uragan) were studied. Field agroecological tests were conducted on rainfed fields of Precaspian Agrarian Federal Scientific Center of the RAS with different moisture level in 2018-2020. Nelli cultivar was used as a control. The methods of Selyaninov G.T., Zhivotkov L.A., Eberhart S.A., and Rassell W.A. were used for calculations. During periods of active vegetation of winter triticale, Selyaninov hydrothermal coefficient varied from 0.3 to 0.5 (zone of strong and very strong drought); environment index was from -0.67 to 0.66. According to the data obtained, cv. Khleborob showed the greatest adaptive potential and consistently high yield under various meteorological conditions of the season compared to the other tested winter triticale varieties. Moreover, the cultivar had good winter hardiness (5 points) and survival (90.8 %). On the average for the years of research it showed high adaptability coefficient (1.43), and the indicators of its plasticity and genetic flexibility were 0.77 and 1.40, respectively. Therefore, cv. Khleborob can be recommended for use in the acutely arid conditions in semi-desert zone of the northwestern part of the Astrakhan region.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(3):251-262
pages 251-262 views

Spatial patterns of crops in Russia

Savin I.Y., Avetyan S.A., Shishkonakova E.A., Zhogolev A.V.


Information about spatial distribution of agricultural crops in Russia exists only in the form of statistical data aggregated at the level of regions or farms, which does not make it possible to obtain data about the actual distribution of crops. Attempts to use satellite data for mapping of individual crops have not yet been successful either. We have attempted to disaggregate statistical data on crop areas using map of ploughed soils in Russia, information on crop rotations, and assessment of suitability of land for cultivation of specific crops. An analysis was conducted for the 28 most common crops in Russia. Maps of the distribution of these crops in the country were constructed. The maps give an idea of the geography of crops in Russia and can be used to improve approaches to satellite mapping and monitoring of crop areas in the country.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(3):263-286
pages 263-286 views

Genetics and plant breeding

Creation of initial breeding material of red clover with high fodder qualities for conditions of Northern region

Korelina V.A., Batakova O.B., Zobnina I.V.


Red clover is the main perennial legume crop in the Northern region. The article presents the results of the competitive variety testing of accessions (2019 and 2021) on nutritional value and feed productivity. Amounts of crude protein, fat, fiber, sugar, ash elements and carotene were estimated in contrasting meteorological conditions. The research years had signifi differences in the sum of temperatures, precipitation accumulation and hydrothermal coeffi During ‘regrowth-beginning of fl period of red clover, the hydrothermal coeffi was 2.2 in 2019, and 0.75 in 2021. The purpose of the research was to study the nutritional value and productivity of breeding samples of red clover and selection of promising ones for further breeding work. The prevailing role of weather conditions over the varietal features of samples was revealed. In the dry year 2021, the studied indicators of nutritional value (except phosphorus) were higher than in the wet year 2019. In terms of nutrient content, SD-326, K-17421, K-46524, K-44964, K-1939 were identifi signifi exceeding the standard or showing a result at the standard level for two or more chemical components. In terms of high nutritional value and protein yield, three samples reliably confirmed the excess over the standard on average for two years of testing: SD-326-1227 kg/ha (+ 130 kg/ha), K-17421-1308 kg/ha (+ 211 kg/ha), K-46524-1156 kg/ha (+ 59 kg/ha). The obtained results will be used in future creation of red clover cultivars with high nutritional properties and feed productivity.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(3):287-298
pages 287-298 views

Soil science and agrochemistry

Efficiency of early spring feeding of winter wheat complex fertilizers on light podzolic soil in Poland

Blashik R.M., Nosov V.V., Peliy A.F.


Field experiments were carried out on sandy loamy podzolic soil in the Łódź Voivodship (Wieluń commune, Masłowice parish) at the Experimental Station of the Polish Research Variety Testing Center, to study the effect of various winter wheat feeding systems with an intensive cultivation system on yield and grain quality indicators. The soil before conducting the experiments was characterized by a neutral reaction of the soil environment, a very high level of mobile phosphorus, and an average content of mobile potassium in 2017 and 2019, and high availability in 2018. The initial level of nitrate nitrogen in the soil was medium in 2017 and high in 2018 and 2019. The podzolic soils of the region, with a light granulometric composition, often have a low supply of sulfur available to plants. With a low content of humus in such soils, there is a small reserve of sulfur in organic form, and therefore, variants with sulfur-containing fertilizers were included in the intensive technology of winter wheat cultivation. Weather conditions of the growing seasons 2017-2018, 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 differed by an insufficient amount of atmospheric precipitation during the growth stages critical for grain formation. The yield of winter wheat grain in all years of research was maximum in variant 3 with the use of ammonium nitrate and complex sulfur-containing fertilizer Apaviva NPK(S) 15:15:15(10) as top dressing. The yield increase resulted from the autumn phosphorus-potassium application (double superphosphate and potassium chloride) was 25, 34 and 30 % in 2018, 2019 and 2020, respectively. The maximum grain yield of winter wheat in the experiment of 6.93 t/ha was obtained in variant 3 in 2019. Such a system of winter wheat top dressing provided a stable high additional income.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(3):299-314
pages 299-314 views

Influence of water erosion on the structure and content of labile humic substances in the structural-aggregate fractions of leached chernozems of the Central Chernozem region

Vasenev I.I., Gorbunova N.S., Gromovik A.I., Devyatova T.A.


The structural-aggregate composition of leached chernozems (Voronic Chernozems Pachic according to WRB-2014), the distribution of organic compounds Corg and labile humic substances (LHS) in the structural-aggregate fractions of carbon in the conditions of a slope type of terrain during the development of erosion were studied. The work was carried out in the northern part of the Voronezh region on the catena, which included a section of the watershed, smoothly turning into a southwestern slope about 1500 m long and 5˚ steep. The soils of the following sections of the catena were studied: 1) the watershed part; 2) the upper part of the slope; 3) the middle part of the slope. It was shown that degradation of the structural-aggregate state occurs in eroded chernozems, accompanied by a deterioration in microstructurality, a decrease in the number of mesoaggregates and a structural coefficient, as well as a loss of a water-resistant structure. According to the results, LHS play a very important role in maintaining the water-stable structure of chernozems. The most significant contribution to the content of Corg contribute mesoaggregates 5-1 mm in size, which are actively lost during the development of erosion.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(3):315-330
pages 315-330 views

Landscaping of settlements

Assessment of soils and green stands in the recreational areas with different land-use history in New Moscow

Demina S.A., Vasenev V.I., Makhinya K.I., Romzaykina O.N., Istomina I.I., Pavlova M.E., Dovletyarova E.A.


Abstract. Recreational areas contribute considerably to the establishment of sustainable and comfortable urban environment. Green stands and soils of recreational areas provide important environmental functions and ecosystem services, their utilization depends on natural and anthropogenic factors distinguished by land-use history. For the case of the recreational areas of New Moscow, a comparative analysis of trees (n=1909) and soils (n=39, 0-10 cm layer) of the parks, established on former forested and fallow lands, was performed. It was shown that the species diversity was higher although the tree condition score was lower in the forest-parks, compared to the parks established on former fallow lands, which were generally characterized by a higher level of maintenance. Soils of these parks had a neutral pHH20 (7.2±0.8) and high content of organic matter (8.5±2.5 %), whereas the forest-parks soils were similar to the natural Retisols of the forest area with pHH20 6.4±0.2 and 5.1±0.2, organic matter content 5.9±0.2 и 3.5±0.2 %, respectively. Soils of the parks, established on the former fallow lands, had also a higher pollution level by particular heavy metals as well as considering the integral pollution index. Thus, a higher level of maintenance of the parks established on former fallow lands coincided with a higher anthropogenic pressure and ecosystem alteration. However, reorganization of forests into forestparks allowed partial preservation of the natural ecosystems. That is necessary to consider for planning the new urbanized areas in Moscow.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(3):331-349
pages 331-349 views

Protective afforestation

Germination of acorns and growth of one-year common oak seedlings in conditions of the Volga-Akhtuba floodplain, Astrakhan region

Bakaneva A.A.


Seed germination and development of common oak ( Quercus robur L.) during the first year of growing under conditions of the Volga-Akhtuba floodplain, Astrakhan region, were studied in the research. Currently, the floodplain forests of the Astrakhan region are experiencing a very high load from the grazing of farm animals and ‘wild’ tourism. Therefore, it is necessary to restore degraded forest phytocenoses to increase species diversity. The aim of the study was to study the effect of flooding duration on oak germination of in the soil and climatic conditions of the Volga-Akhtuba floodplain in the north of the Astrakhan region. Sowing seeds were carried out according to the Sukachev method (1961). According to the results of the three-year research (2019-2021), it was revealed: the germination of seeds (acorns) of common oak ( Quercus robur L.) averaged 31 % of the total sown seeds. In 2019 and 2021, germination of oak in non-flooded areas was 5 % higher compared to other variants of the experiment (short-term and long-term flooding), resulted from seed loss due to prolonged flooding. In 2020, as a result of short flooding period, germination had an insignificant difference in variants. The height of annual seedlings of common oak in the variant of prolonged flooding differed significantly (3…5 cm higher) from other variants.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(3):350-359
pages 350-359 views

Animal breeding

Cow reproduction rates with varying inbreeding degrees

Rudenko O.V.


The evaluation of the breeding work results carried out, the identification of optimal systems for the animal’s selection, including related ones, have always been relevant. The purpose was to study the influence of various inbreeding degrees on reproductive abilities and their selection and genetic parameters in Holstein cows. The research was carried out on the basis of ‘Pushkinskoe’ Breeding Plant, Nizhny Novgorod region. At the earliest age, heifers were inseminated in the group with recent inbreeding (14.87 months), for this reason they had the lowest weight at the first insemination - 4 25.7 kg. Cows in the group with recent inbreeding had the shortest service period (108.9 days), the longest service period was in the group with close inbreeding (152.6 days). The variability of live weight during the first insemination and fertilization in all groups was at a low level (Cv = 5,22…8,25 %). The duration of the service period after first lactation in all groups, except for the group of close inbreeding, had a variation of about 45 %, in the group with close inbreeding it was 1.5 times higher. Despite its small number, the group of close inbreeding turned out to be the most variable in all indicators. An increase in the age of the first fertilization of heifers in the group of close inbreeding leads to an increase in the duration of the service period (r = 0.335). However, there is practically no connection between these indicators in the other groups. Many of the studied indicators had a weak positive or negative relationship with each other. Among the resulting young, more than half were heifers, in groups with different inbreeding degrees this indicator varied from 63.3 to 66.7 %, in the group with outbred animals it was 69.4 %. Twins were registered 2 times and only in the group with a recent inbreeding degree. Stillbirth in all groups was at a fairly low level - 5 .7…6.7 %, in the group with a close inbreeding degree no cases of stillborn calves were detected. The birth of calves with congenital deformities and pathologies from related mating was not observed. Thus, in the conducted studies, inbreeding had no negative impact on the cow’s reproductive qualities even to a close degree.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(3):360-372
pages 360-372 views

Veterinary science

Hematological and biochemical parameters of bulls’ blood when using mink carcass hydrolyzate as a feed additive

Denisenko V.N., Balykov V.A., Rogov R.V., Kruglova Y.S.


To improve the efficiency of ruminal digestion, researchers have developed a variety of enzyme feed additives. We are also working to find feed additives that improve the nutrition of rumen microflora, that is, prebiotics. For this purpose, we have proposed an animal protein hydrolyzate. The paper presents data reflecting the dynamics of hematological and biochemical parameters of blood serum of calves at the age of 3-4 months when hydrolyzed mink carcasses are included in the diet at doses of 5, 10 and 20 grams per head per day for 30 days. It was shown that after the completion of the experiment in animals treated with hydrolyzate at doses of 10 and 20 grams per head, there was a significant decrease in the content of leukocytes within the reference values and an increase in the percentage of lymphocytes in the leukogram. The change in the biochemical parameters of the groups of experimental bulls was characterized by a dose-dependent statistically significant increase in the concentration of protein, urea and reserve alkalinity. The concentration of total bilirubin, ALT, LDH significantly decreased, AST- increased. The results obtained indicate an increase in the immune reactivity of the animal organism with the use of the feed additive.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(3):373-381
pages 373-381 views

Dynamics of cerebrospinal fluid in correction of degenerative lumbosacral stenozis during the postoperative period in dogs

Vilkowysky I.F.


Dynamics of cerebrospinal fl parameters in postoperative period during correction of degenerative lumbosacral stenosis in dogs is an important diagnostic aspect that allows monitoring changes in the state of animals after surgery. An accurate analysis of cerebrospinal fl id provides a wide range of information about the patient’s neurological health. The assessment should consist of macroscopic, quantitative and microscopic analyses. Сell count is the most important and potentially sensitive indicator of disease. The aim of this study was to determine changes in the cerebrospinal fluid during the postoperative period in the correction of degenerative lumbosacral stenosis. In the study, there were 9 dogs of various breeds, aged from 2 to 8 years (experimental group), the indicators of cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood of 3 healthy outbred dogs obtained as a result of medical examination at the age of up to 5 years were used as a control. Surgical intervention was carried out according to the B.P. Meij, N. Bergknut, which consists in dorsal access to the L7-S 1 vertebral arches, soft tissue dissection, dissection of the dorsal ligament, formation of channels in the cranial articular processes of S 1, L7. From each animal, three liquorograms were taken for examination three times on days 1-3 after surgery, on days 12-15 and 27-30 after surgery. The study of cerebrospinal fluid was performed within 30 minutes after taking. As a result of the data obtained, it was found that the cellular composition of the liquor of dogs in the postoperative period of correction of lumbosacral stenosis was within the physiological norm, erythrocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid were not detected. The number of nucleated cells in operated dogs was the highest on days 1-3 after surgery. On the 12th-15th day after the operation, cytosis in the experimental and control groups of animals was 1.27 cells/µl more. On days 27-30 after surgery, cytosis in dogs in the experimental group was lower by 0.45 cells/µl compared to the control. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid can help in the diagnostic assessment of the condition of animals in the postoperative period. However, it should be borne in mind that results are rarely specific to any particular condition and should be interpreted in the light of clinical and additional diagnostic findings.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(3):382-391
pages 382-391 views

Features of the clinical manifestation of subcompensated intestinal dysbiosis in cats in assessing the effectiveness of its correction

Rudenko P.A., Sotnikova E.D., Krotova E.A., Babichev N.V., Drukovsky S.G., Bugrov N.S.


Formation and reproduction of gut microbiome begins at birth, while change in its composition depends mainly on various genetic, nutritional and environmental factors. The article considers the features of clinical manifestation of subcompensated intestinal dysbiosis in cats in assessing the effectiveness of its treatment. The studies were carried out on the basis of Department of Veterinary Medicine, RUDN University, and the clinical work was conducted at private veterinary clinics: ‘Avettura’, ‘Epiona’, ‘In the World with Animals’. Cats were selected for the experiment as they arrived at the initial appointment at veterinary clinics. The diagnosis of suspected intestinal dysbacteriosis was made considering anamnesis, clinical examination, and microbiological tests. The severity of intestinal dysbacteriosis was assessed on the results of clinical and laboratory studies. During the research, clinical and diagnostic approaches for subcompensated intestinal dysbacteriosis in cats were improved. Furthermore, effective ways of its treatment were developed. For subcompensated intestinal dysbacteriosis, administration of ‘Lactobifadol’ probiotic, ‘Vetelakt’ prebiotic and ‘Azoksivet’ immunomodulator showed the greatest therapeutic effect, which led to an overall clinical improvement in 5.50 days. Therapeutic efficacy of B3 regimen was also clearly evidenced by the positive changes in intestinal microbiota and hematological blood parameters during the pharmacorrection. Improvement of clinical diagnostic approaches, prognosis of intestinal dysbiosis of varying severity and treatment effectiveness in cats require will allow to study intestinal dysbiotic disorders in other animal species.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(3):392-405
pages 392-405 views

Effect of biologically active substances on hematological status of cows

Slashchilina T.V., Shaposhnikov I.T., Aristov A.V., Marmurova O.M., Kotsarev V.N.


Industry development has a technogenic impact on the environment, thereby posing a threat to health and welfare of farm animals. As a result, toxic substances accumulate in soil, water, feed, and have a long period of decomposition. At the same time, changes in the metabolic profile occur in animals, leading to a decrease in their resistance to viral and bacterial infections. The search for new means and methods to stop the development of pathological conditions and create conditions for the resistance of cows to technogenic stress seems to be relevant. In this regard, the purpose was to study the effect of аminoseleferon-B on hematological parameters and protein metabolism of cows with immune deficiency under technogenic load caused by the chemical industry producing mineral fertilizers in Voronezh region. During monitoring soil and water bodies near this object, an excess of the maximum permissible concentrations for heavy metal content was established. The studies were carried out in industrial livestock complex on 20 highly productive dairy cows with a secondary immunodeficiency state, located in the zone of exposure to chemical emissions into the atmosphere. Control and experimental groups of animals were formed. Experimental cows were injected with аminoseleferon-B. It was revealed that the presence of cows in conditions of technogenic impact on the environment leads to decrease in total protein, change in blood fractional composition, which negatively affects physiological processes in the body. Insufficient levels of αand γ-globulin fractions in cow blood indicate inhibition of natural resistance factors. A negative reaction of animal organism associated with exposure to toxins is indicated by significant increase in the level of β-globulins in blood. It was found that аminoseleferon-B had a corrective effect on blood morphological parameters and protein metabolism, significantly increasing number of erythrocytes, leukocytes, hemoglobin, lymphocytes, monocytes, total protein, α-globulins, γ-globulins and reducing content of neutrophils, eosinophils, β-globulins to normal levels. Thus, аminoseleferon-B contributed to increase in natural resistance, adaptation to adverse environmental factors and stimulation of metabolic processes in cows.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(3):406-415
pages 406-415 views

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