Vol 18, No 2 (2023)

Morphology and biochemistry of plants

Adaptability of barley varieties in terms of fat content in grain under conditions of Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe

Polonsky V.I., Sumina A.V., Gerasimov S.A.


The aim of the study was to analyze possible relationship between fat content in grain of barley varieties and level of their stability for this biochemical trait. The work involved 15 varieties of hulled barley, which were grown for three years in conditions of the Krasnoyarsk foreststeppe (‘Minino’ farm, Emelyanovsky district, the Krasnoyarsk Territory). Climatic conditions in the research years differed significantly in terms of temperature and precipitation during the growing season. After harvesting plants, fat content in barley grain was measured by the chemical method according to GOST 13496.15-97. For barley varieties, two parameters of ecological plasticity (coefficient of variation; stress resistance index) and four stability parameters (indicator of level and stability of variety; homeostatic parameter; stability factor; index of selection value of variety) were calculated according to the indicated biochemical trait. It was found that Simon and Pallidum 4727 had the lowest value of plasticity and the highest value of stability (and, accordingly, the minimum sum of ranks) in terms of fat content in grain for the conditions of the Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe. G 18619, G 19589 and Dygyn were least valuable in terms of adaptability parameters with the maximum sum of ranks. It was shown that barley varieties with a higher fat content in grain were characterized by increased values of all stability parameters for this trait, and the indicated positive relationship was statistically proven for the Cs parameter. The result obtained shows that through the successful selection of barley for the maximum stability of ‘grain fat content’ trait, oil content will not decrease.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(2):153-162
pages 153-162 views

Genetics and plant breeding

Some aspects of testing cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. in conditions of the Astrakhan region

Myagkova E.G.


Cotton is a valuable crop for the Russian economy. Creation of the initial material for breeding work, as well as the introduction into production of high-yielding cotton varieties adapted to growing conditions are the main tasks set for Russian breeders. The study of agronomic traits of cotton varieties was carried out at Precaspian Agrarian Federal Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, located in the north of the Astrakhan region, in 2017-2019. The research was performed in order to identify productivity potential, as well as to determine the adaptive capabilities to extreme climatic conditions of the Northern Caspian region. Cotton varieties were compared with the standard (AS-1). The results were processed according to methods of mathematical statistics. All varieties studied in the research had good indicators of agronomic traits. UZ-4 and Goliot varieties were characterized by the highest yield values - 3.0 and 2.6 t/ha, respectively.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(2):163-173
pages 163-173 views

Plant protection

Influence of Xanthomonas euvesicatoria pv. allii on germination of 12 onion varieties

Kavhiza N.J., Zargar M., Prikhodko S.I., Pakina E.N., Diakite S.


Onion bacterial blight is a problematic disease affecting onion production in many countries. The disease is seed-transmitted, hence difficult to control. The study was based on the effects of bacteria on germination percentage and germination energy of various commercial onion varieties. Twelve commercial varieties were obtained from the market and inoculated with bacteria and then tested for germination percentage and germination energy. For most onion varieties, the level of germination inhibition increased with increasing bacterial concentration. On the 5th day of recording, the germination of onion seeds of the variety Karantansky which were inoculated with bacteria at a concentration of 108 CFU/ml differed significantly from the germination of seeds in the control variant. At the same time, seed germination was similar to the control when using bacteria at a concentration of 106 cfu/ml. On the 14th day of record, it was found that the highest concentration (108 CFU/ ml) caused the highest level of inhibition in most onion seeds, while moderate levels were observed at 106 CFU/ ml and the lowest concentration (104 CFU/ml) caused the least inhibition. In the cultivar Khaltsedon, seeds did not germinate at any of the bacterial concentrations compared to 8 % germination in the control. Regarding germination energy, the highest concentration of inoculum on the 5th day of record had the greatest effect in 3 varieties: Myachkovsky 300, Carmen MS and Khaltsedon with germination energy of 3, 2 and 0 %, respectively. In most varieties, the highest bacterial concentration of 108 CFU/ml had the least effect on germination energy, followed by 106 CFU/ml and the highest of 104 CFU/ml on the 14th day of record. However, there were no differences in the effect of concentrations for the varieties Karantansky and Khaltsedon, although all treatments differed significantly from controls (p < 0.05).

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(2):174-185
pages 174-185 views

Agronomy and geoponics

Optimization of basic tillage techniques on the slope landscapes in the Chechen Republic

Nakhaev M.R., Astarkhanova T.S.


Studies on the optimization of basic tillage techniques were carried out in the foothill part of the Chechen Republic. The purpose of the research was to determine the optimal reception of basic tillage on the slope landscapes of the Chechen Republic in the cultivation of grain and leguminous crops. The results of the optimization of basic tillage techniques on the sloping landscape of the Chechen Republic have shown that the smallest number of weeds on average in 2017-2021 was recorded on winter wheat crops after moldboard tillage (12.3 plants/m2), the largest number of weeds was registered on spring barley crops after minimum disc tillage (36.1 plants/m2). The smallest dry biomass (2.79 t/ha) was found in peas in the variant with minimum disc tillage. The maximum dry biomass (5.15 t/ha) was recorded for winter wheat in the variant with deep moldboard tillage. The lowest net photosynthetic productivity (1.82 g/m2 per day) was found in peas in the variant with minimum tillage. The highest net photosynthetic productivity (3.39 g/m2 per day) was noted for winter wheat in the variant with minimum disk tillage. On average for 2017-2021, the maximum economic yield of grain on the sloping landscape was formed in winter wheat after deep tillage and amounted to 4.25 t/ha. The minimum economic yield of grain was formed in peas after deep tillage and was 2.14 t/ha. Thus, optimal conditions for growth and development of grain and leguminous crops on the sloping landscapes of the Chechen Republic are formed after moldboard tillage to a depth of 0.20…0.22 m with a nonmoldboard deepening to 0.35…0.37 m.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(2):186-196
pages 186-196 views

Soil science and agrochemistry

Informative value of infrared survey data for detecting properties of arable soils

Grubina P.G., Savin I.Y.


Possibility of detecting soil fertility parameters based on the use of thermal survey data was studied on the test area of Yasnogorsky District, Tula region, Russia. The test area has gray forest slightly eroded arable soils located in the flat part of the slope. During the field works, an open soil surface was photographed using a FLIR VUE 512 thermal imager (range 7.5-13.5 mkm), soil samples were also taken from a layer of 0-5 cm and soil moisture was measured in a layer of 15-20 cm. For almost all parameters of soil fertility (pH, humus content, potassium content, exchange cations - Mg++, K+, Na+), a statistically significant correlation was established (r =0.4-0.7) between them and the survey data in the thermal range of the spectrum. For moderate correlations, polynomial regression equations were compiled. Among the studied fertility parameters, the pH of the salt extract, the content of potassium oxide and potassium exchange cations had significant coefficient of determination (R2 > 0.60) with the thermal range of the spectrum - R2= 0.61, R2 =0.60 and R2 = 0.63, respectively. The obtained results have shown that thermal imaging can be used to map some parameters of soil fertility for the region. Nevertheless, it turned out to be impossible to reliably detect all the main parameters of soil fertility of the test field on the basis of thermal survey data. However, the thermal soil survey data can be used as auxiliary data when shooting in the visible and nearIR ranges, which helps to improve the accuracy of contactless soil monitoring.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(2):197-212
pages 197-212 views

Morphology and ontogenesis of animals

Macro and micromorphological features of prostate-vesical complex in dogs

Golubtsova D.A., Slesarenko N.A.


The results of macro and micromorphological studies of vesicoprostatic complex in dogs Canis familiaris aimed at establishing normative morphofunctional patterns and features of the urogenital apparatus were described. The morphometric parameters of the organ in non-castrated males, determined by somatotype and breed affiliation, were presented. Data reflecting the variability of the norm structure of the gland are basic in predicting the development of latent pathologies of prostate and in developing effective methods for their therapeutic correction.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(2):213-221
pages 213-221 views

Influence of the type of higher nervous activity on seminal physiological characteristics in cats of Russian breeds

Petryaeva A.V., Tkachev A.V., Tkacheva O.L.


Temperament has a significant impact on reproductive function. Most studies are devoted to temperament as a mental characteristic, and the sexual temperament of cats and its influence on physiological characteristics of sperm have not been studied at all. The aim of the research was to study physiological features of reproductive function in cats of Russian breeds depending on sexual temperament. The experiments were carried out in Moscow and the Moscow region from 2019 to 2022. The study used 21 breeding mature cats aged 2 to 8 years, which belonged to 5 different Russian breeds (Bengal breed - 5 cats, British shorthair - 5 cats, Siberian breed - 6 cats, Maine Coon - 5 cats, Sphinx - 5 cats). The sexual temperament of cats was determined according to our methodology developed on the basis of modification of the method for determining the sexual temperament for stallions. Mobility of native sperm was the lowest in cats with a weak nervous system, which is 1.17 % less than mobility of sperm in animals with an unbalanced nervous system, 7.36 % less (P < 0.01) compared to physiological mobility of newly acquired sperm in an inert nervous system and 9.71 % less than activity of sperm in cats with a sanguine temperament. The highest concentration of sperm was in cats with live sexual temperament, which was 3.02 million/ml more (P < 0.05) than in cats with unrestrained type of temperament, 43.09 million/ml more (P < 0.01) than in cats with calm sexual temperament and 56.74 million/ ml more (P < 0.01) than in cats with weak sexual temperament. Sperm motility after thawing was higher in cats with inert temperament, which was 5.06 % more (P < 0.01) compared to cats with mobile temperament and weak nervous system and 9.1 % more (P < 0.001) than in unbalanced cats. Survivability of germ cells in Russian cats at 38 °C after defrosting was greatest in live sexual temperament cats, which was 0.22 hours more in comparison with calm sexual temperament cats, 0.62 hours more (P < 0.01) than in cats with weak sexual temperament and 0.91 hours more than in cats with unrestrained sexual temperament.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(2):222-229
pages 222-229 views

Veterinary science

Nano-Selenium-Mediated Alterations in Lipid Profile, Liver and Renal Functions, and Protein Parameters in Male Lambs: An Experimental Study

Aljaf K.A., Bolshakova M.N.


The impact of nano-selenium supplementation on lipid metabolism, liver enzymes, renal function, and protein levels in male lambs was investigated in this study during a 60-day period. Lambs were divided into two groups - control and experimental, which were administered nanoselenium orally at a dosage of 0.5 mg/ kg of feed once a day, daily. Each group consisted of five male lambs. According to the findings, cholesterol levels dropped significantly at days 45 (P < 0.01) and 60 (P < 0.05), whereas triglyceride levels significantly rose at days 15 and 30 (P < 0.01). Throughout the trial, the levels of uric acid and creatinine were constant. At days 15 and 60, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), while at days 45 and 60, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels declined (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). At days 15 and 30, albumin levels dropped significantly (0.05), but day 60 saw an increase in globulin levels significantly (P < 0.05). The drop in AST and ALP levels might be a sign that liver function has possibly improved. However, the drop in albumin levels and rise in globulin levels raise the possibility that taking nano-selenium supplements may affect how proteins are metabolized. The findings of this study concluded that the effects of nano-selenium supplementation on lipid metabolism, liver enzymes, renal function, and protein levels in male lambs were time-dependent. In addition to possible improvements in liver function based on decreased AST and ALP levels and changes in albumin and globulin levels, the study also noticed an initial transient increase in triglyceride levels that was followed by a decline in cholesterol levels. To determine the time-dependent changes in liver function, liver enzymes, as well as renal function in response to nano-selenium supplementation in male lambs was objective of this study.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(2):230-240
pages 230-240 views

Analysis of surgical correction of atlantoaxial instability in dogs

Vilkovysky I.F., Rusnak I.A., Yagnikov S.A., Sakhno N.V., Seleznev S.B.


Effectiveness of ventral surgical approach in correction of atlanto-axial instability in dogs of “toy” breeds was analyzed in the research. 135 clinical cases of surgical correction, the general concept of surgical access and implant placement, which minimize risks of iatrogenic complications, were studied. Ventral stabilization was carried out by forming an arthrodesis between atlas and epistropheus by inserting screws or spokes through articular structures and vertebral bodies from ventral surface and then fixing them with bone cement. In the studied method, there are also complications in form of failure of metal structures or damage to recurrent laryngeal nerve, but, according to statistics, the incidence of these complications in world practice does not exceed 20 %. Among the possible complications during the operation are death of animal because of sudden respiratory arrest associated with spinal cord injury, migration or breakage of implants, inadequate alignment of spine. In addition, implants may not be placed correctly causing chronic pain or damage to the spinal cord. As a result of the operation, 104 dogs fully recovered, partial preservation of neurological deficit was observed in 13 animals, 18 animals died in the early postoperative period. Complications that did not lead to a deterioration in neurological status and quality of life occurred in 17 animals. Analyzing the work done, the method of ventral stabilization in the treatment of atlanto-axial instability can be recommended as the most reliable and optimal method, since it is technically simple and has good long-term results. Statistical data showed good results, the method is effective and allows to fully return the animal to a quality life in more than 86 % of cases.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(2):241-249
pages 241-249 views

Effectiveness of Farnesol for treatment of dog otitis complicated by Malassezia pachydermatis

Olabode I.R., Sachivkina N.P., Kiseleva E.V., Shurov A.I.


The study involved 30 dogs with otitis complicated by Malassezia pachydermatis . The animals were divided into 2 groups: experimental (n = 15) and control (n = 15). The experimental group was prescribed veterinary ear drops Surolan + a solution of the drug Farnesol; the control group - Surolan. The study showed that when Farnesol is added to the treatment regimen for fungal otitis etiology in dogs, small changes in the clinical composition of the blood are recorded, characterized by an increase in the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin, a decrease in the number of leukocytes, with a decrease in the indicators of eosinophils and rod-shaped neutrophils in the experiment compared with the control. In addition, the complete absence of Malassezia pachydermatis in the smears of the ear contents after two weeks of therapy with a combined drug was proved. That is, in the experimental group, there were no cases of the presence of yeast-like fungi (YLF) in the smear after combined therapy with Surolan + Farnesol. And in the control group of 15 animals, YLF were observed in two with microscopy of ear exudate smears, but not in high concentration. The use of a combination of Surolan and Farnesol in dogs of the experimental group led to a decrease in hyperemia, itching, edema, ear fetid fluid on the 5th…7th days of treatment, and complete clinical recovery of the animals occurred by the 10th…14th day of therapy. In the control group, only Surolan was used, and improvement of clinical condition occurred on days 12…14, and recovery only after completion of the full course. As a result, both treatment regimens were successful, but the scheme with Farnesol gave faster results due to the wide spectrum of action of this drug: both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(2):250-263
pages 250-263 views

Features of the course of hepatocardial syndrome in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Sotnikova E.D., Petrukhina O.A., Byakhova V.M., Sibirtsev V.D.


The issues of changes in clinical, laboratory and instrumental parameters in cats with hepatocardial syndrome formed against the background of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were studied. It is known that in high-bred cats with congestive heart failure, secondary hepatopathy can develop and progress. It was shown that hepatocardial syndrome occurs in 33.7 % of cats, out of the total number of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 83). It has been established that hepatocardial complications in cats are a risk factor for a more severe course of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Hepatocardial syndrome in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is characterized by severe hypothermia, circulatory and respiratory failure. In sick animals, an increase in frequency of breathing during sleep was recorded (33.3±9.3 versus 17.9±1.8 times/min; p < 0.001). Domestic cats with hepatocardial syndrome had a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure (100.2±19.3 versus 107.2±19.1 mm Hg; p < 0.05), sinus tachycardia (200.3±19.6 17.8 times/min; p < 0.001), which leads to a significant decrease in PQ intervals (57.9±9.9 versus 64.9±9.9 ms; p < 0.001) and QT intervals (168.9±17, 2 vs 157.5±18.6 ms; p < 0.001). Sick cats had a significant increase in the time of refilling of capillaries with blood, slowdown in intraventricular conduction, increase in voltage of ventricular and atrial complex on electrocardiograms, expansion of pulmonary vein, significant dilatation of left atrium, extreme concentric hypertrophy of left ventricle, increase in transverse contractility of myocardium of left ventricle and decrease in longitudinal contractility myocardium of left and right ventricles, cardiomyocyte cytolysis syndrome, cholestasis, and hypoalbuminemia

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(2):264-272
pages 264-272 views

Molecular biological marker BCL-2: testis analysis in prenatal injection of estrogen to white laboratory mice

Sulaimanova R.T., Kvochko A.N.


Immunohistochemical study is one of the modern methods of disease diagnostics used in practical veterinary practice, as well as in scientific developments in differential diagnostics of animal diseases of tumour and non-tumour nature. Prenatal influence of estrogens results in reproductive system disorders in an adult organism which is accompanied by parallel growth of steroid dependent cancers of the offspring: testicles and ovaries. The aim of the study was to perform immunohistochemical analysis of Bcl-2 marker during prenatal exposure to different doses of the synthetic estrogen analogue Sinestrol in the testes of the offspring of white non-pedigreed laboratory mice. After fertilization, the pregnant females were divided into 3 groups, one intact and two experimental groups. The intact group was unaffected (n = 10). The first experimental group, C-25 (n = 13), was injected with the estrogen drug Sinestrol in the form of a 2 % oil solution at a dose of 25 µg/kg. The second experimental group (n = 13) was given the estrogen preparation Sinestrol in the form of 2 % oil solution in a dose of 40 mkg/kg. When the offspring reached sexual maturity, they were removed from the experiment. Immunohistochemical analysis was carried out on sections from paraffin blocks of testes of progeny intended for standard morphological study, the marker of apoptosis inhibitor Bcl-2 was determined on indices of cellular elements of male glands of progeny: spermatogonia, spermatocytes, sperm-tides, spermatozoa and Leydig cells. Expression of Bcl-2 marker upon exposure to the synthetic drug Sinestrol at doses of 25 and 40 µg/kg showed that the number of positively stained cells in spermatogonia increased by 8.6 and 9.4 % respectively compared to the intact group. When the intact group was compared with experimental groups C-25 and C-40, the expression of Bcl-2 marker in spermatocyte cells and spermatozoa showed no difference, a slight increase in positively stained cells in spermatids was observed. Bcl-2 marker expression rate in experimental groups C 25 and C-40 decreased in Leydig cells by 56.0 (P < 0.05) and 60.0 % (P < 0.05), respectively. Administration of the synthetic estrogen analogue Sinestrol during fetal gland initiation resulted in impaired morphology in the testes in adulthood. The expression index of Bcl-2 marker in experimental groups C-25 and C-40 decreased in Leydig cells, resulting in apoptotic cell death, which is responsible for production of male sex hormone testosterone. The results can be used to select optimal doses of the synthetic estrogen analogue Sinestrol in the prenatal period.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(2):273-281
pages 273-281 views

Agricultural economy

Project approach in breeding programs to ensure food security in Western Siberia

Yusova O.A., Nikolaev P.N.


The stages of development and implementation of the project for solving the main issues of breeding programs were considered. The studies were carried out using empirical methods and a marketing strategy. Project management is a part of the enterprise management system, in this case, Omsk Agrarian Research Center. Having a clear, predetermined risk mitigation plan as well as effective change management is a key success factor for project management. Given the well-known limitations of this approach: financial, time and human - the authors focused on the third component, in particular, organizational structure, role, responsibility and interaction of each of its members. It was shown that, under the condition of a clear division of roles, stabilization of work and minimization of deviations from the plan approved by the customer were achieved. It led to an increase in net income at minimal cost - the main criterion for economic efficiency in the agricultural sector. As a result, in modern realities, it is necessary to build breeding programs not on an intuitive approach, but with well-organized planning, starting from the stage of expert assessment of significance and ending with an economic assessment of its effectiveness. A basic project was developed - a plan for the implementation of breeding programs, applicable in production conditions of breeding enterprises.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(2):282-300
pages 282-300 views

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