Vol 18, No 3 (2023)

Crop production

Prolonged effect of growth stimulants on cultivation of planting material of Koyama spruce Picea koraiensis Nakai

Ostroshenko V.Y.


Koyama spruce (Picea koraiensis Nakai) is one of the main tree species in Primorsky Krai. Due to its rapid growth, light loving characteristics and good renewal on wood cutting and burned areas in combination with high technical qualities and decorative properties that distinguish it from other Far Eastern spruces, as well as positive experience of plants in various regions of Russia, this tree species is one of the promising coniferous species of the Russian Far East for forest restoration. Koyama spruce is valuable for landscaping cities and towns. However, its introduction is constrained by a number of factors, including a lack of quantity and a high cost of seed material. Use of growth stimulants accelerates production of high-quality planting material of spruce. The purpose of the research was to study the prolonged effect of pre-planting treatment of the root system of three-year-old saplings of Koyama spruce with growth stimulants Krezatsin (triethanolammonium salt of orthocresoxyacetic acid 475 g/l), Tsirkon (hydroxycinnamon acids) and Epin-Extra (epibrassinolide solution in alcohol 0.025 g/l) on morphometric parameters of one- and four-year-old seedlings. Three-year-old seedlings of Koyama spruce grown in the seedling section of the nursery were transplanted to nursery-garden on the area of 0.2 hectares. The seedlings were planted at a distance of 0.6×1 m. Before transplanting, their root system was placed for 0.5 hours in solutions of growth stimulants Krezatsin, Tsirkon and Epin-Extra (solution concentrations of 1 ml / 5 l and 1 ml / 10 l of water). Control saplings were not treated. At the end of the growing season at the end of the 1st and 4th years of growth, the saplings were measured in terms of stem height, height increase, and diameter of root collar. It was revealed that Krezatsin and Epin-Extra growth stimulants had a significant effect on both the growth of one- and four-year-old seedlings So, in the first year of growth, the height of seedlings exceeded the control by 6.3…16.2 %, the increase in height - by 27.5…55.5 %, the diameter of root collar - by 40…80 %; in the fourth year, the excess of seedlings to control was 29.9…45.4, respectively; 7.6…51.5 and 33.3…55.6 %. It was found that the concentration of solutions of 1 ml / 10 l was more effective.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(3):309-319
pages 309-319 views

Soybean varietal response to irrigation and fertilization in the Lower Volga region

Tolokonnikov V.V., Vronskaya L.V., Agapova S.A.


The research was conducted to study the responsiveness of soybean cultivars with different maturation periods to irrigation water and fertilizer and to select cultivars that provide high yields while saving water and agrochemical resources. The method of laying the field experiment was applied (B.A. Dospekhov, 1979). We used different cultivars of RRIIA breeding and doses of fertilizers designed to obtain a yield of 2.5 to 4.5 t/ha of grain. The plot area was 35 m2. The factorial experiment was conducted with four replications. An irrigation regime of 80 % FMC was achieved by watering 0.4 m layer of soil until budding phase and during ripening period — full ripeness. During the generative periods of development of agrophytocenosis (budding — filling of seeds in beans), the moisture inflow into the soil was increased to a depth of 0.6 m. The share of irrigation water increased significantly in years with hydrothermal coefficient GTC02 (2020) — up to 76.5 % — compared to more favorable years with GTC05 (2019). Early maturing cultivars were characterized by the lowest consumption of irrigation water per season: VNIIOZ 86 (3138…4014 m3/ha) and Volgogradka 2 (3653…4381 m3/ha), compared to mid-season cultivars VNIIOZ 31 and Volgogradka 3 (4078…5027 m3/ha). Cv. Volgogradka 2 had the greatest responsiveness to irrigation water — 3.57 t/ha and the lowest water consumption coefficient — 1136 m3/t of grain compared to other cultivars with indicators of 2.81…3.74 t/ha; 1235…1297 m3/t, respectively. For the first time, under irrigation in the Lower Volga region, the technology for obtaining high levels of grain yield of 2.97…4.27 t/ha was improved through the use of genotype of cultivar of regional breeding (Volgogradka 2, Volgogradka 3) and improved mineral nutrition of plants based on a programmed yield (2.5…4.5 t/ha).

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(3):320-333
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Genetics and plant breeding

Features of growing new cultivars of annual flowering plants in Kola Subarctic

Sviatkovskaya E.A., Saltan N.V., Rybalka E.P., Zavodskikh M.S.


Annual flower plants are widely used in landscaping of cities of Kola Subarctic. The selection of sustainable, promising species of annuals and the development of agricultural technology for their cultivation are priorities. For the first time in the conditions of the Murmansk region, 7 new cultivars of annuals were tested: Callistephus chinensis (L.) Nees cv. ´Fan´ var. ´Deep rose´ and ´White´, Antirrhinum majus L. cv. ´Potomac Cherry Rose´, Calendula officinalis L. cv. ´Costa Yellow´ and cv. ´Calypso Orange with Black Center´, Tagetes erecta L. cv. ´Big Top Gold´, Tagetes patula L. cv. ´Hot Pack Gold´ and cv. ´Alumia Cream Brulee´. Flowering time ranged from 55 (Callistephus chinensis cv. ‘Fan’) to 120 days (Calendula officinalis cv. ´Calypso Orange with Black Center´). The main biometric indicators (height, diameter of flowers and inflorescences) fully corresponded to plants grown in more southern regions for 4 cultivars (Callistephus chinensis cv. ´Fan´, Calendula officinalis cv. ´Costa Yellow´ and cv. ´Calypso Orange with Black Center´, Tagetes patula cv. ´Hot Pack Gold´), 3 others were rated lower. According to most indicators, the cultivar ‘Calypso Orange with Black Center’ had high decorativeness, due to compactness of bushes and duration of flowering (120 days). The features of agricultural technology of the tested cultivars at the seedling stage were the following: adjustment of timing of sowing seeds, obligatory 3–4‑week hardening, regular application of fertilizers and growth stimulants. On the whole, the new cultivars have successfully adapted to the conditions of the region, retaining their decorative properties. therefore, they can be considered promising for flower decoration of populated areas of the Kola Subarctic.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(3):334-349
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Landscaping of settlements

Seeds of Syringa vulgaris L. as a possible object for phytoindication studies of urban environment in Orenburg

Nazarova N.M.


Urbanized environment is considered as a stressor for individual plants and their communities that form green frame of the city. Changes in structure of plant populations in cities are analyzed as an important indicator of environmental quality. Therefore, phytoindication of quality of the environment in conditions of the city is currently becoming relevant in the context of its optimization. The purpose of the research was to study biometric parameters and seed germination of Syringa vulgaris L., growing in areas with increased anthropogenic pressure in comparison with a ‘conditionally’ clean area. Within the framework of this work, morphometric parameters of lilac seeds growing in areas with a high level of anthropogenic pollution were described. Indicators of reproductive ability of lilacs (laboratory and soil germination) were assessed. According to the results of the observations, it was established that the biometric parameters of S. vulgaris seeds are not indicative and cannot be used in assessing the quality of the environment. The data obtained during laboratory and soil germination of S. vulgaris seeds can be used to characterize the ecological state of sampling areas. Under more favorable environmental conditions (control), germination is much higher than under anthropogenically modified environmental conditions. Based on the results of a comprehensive assessment of laboratory and soil germination, the following distribution of the administrative districts of Orenburg was established according to the degree of anthropogenic pollution (from the most ‘clean’ to the most environmentally unstable): Zauralnaya Grove > Industrial District > Dzerzhinsky District > Leninsky District > Central District.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(3):350-360
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Protective afforestation

Application of GIS technologies in surveying the state of forest crops in the green zone of Astana

Kabanov A.N., Ospangaliev A.S., Kabanova S.A., Kochegarov I.S., Bekbaeva A.M., Danchenko M.A.


When carrying out forestry, constant monitoring of plant condition and growth is very important. There is a wide range of Earth remote sensing sources for effective management of woody vegetation in vast areas. The purpose of the study was to identify areas with weekened and dying tree crops in the green observation zone of Astana, Kazakhstan, covering ‘Batys’ forestry using remote sensing data. The results of studies carried out for research on the growth and development of artificial plantations were obtained. During the experiment, a comparison of remote sensing data was performed using an unmanned aerial vehicle Supercam S350F with multispectral camera Micasense RedEdge and high-resolution measurements obtained with Sentinel‑2 and PlanetScope satellites in order to select a method for solving the tasks. Based on the materials of multispectral diagnostics, the state of forest plantations in ‘Batys’ forestry was revealed, where 35 % of tree crops were classified as healthy, 30 % — as weakened, and 35 % — as dying.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(3):361-372
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Features of natural renewal in pine-linden and larch-linden forest stands in Moscow

Lebedev A.V., Gemonov A.V., Volkov S.N., Fedorova T.A., Kalmykova E.S., Kanadin O.V., Areschenko V.R.


Problems of natural renewal of tree species (pine-linden and larch-­linden stands) were studied in the territory of Forest experimental station, Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy. Natural regeneration of tree species is one of the most urgent problems of forestry and forest park management in urban areas. Reforestation refers to complex natural processes that affect all components of biogeocenoses. The purpose of the research was to study natural regeneration in mixed stands in Moscow. Methods and results of field surveys of forest stands in permanent trial plots were described. The forest stands of permanent trial plots are mature and overmature, therefore at present there is a loss of large-­sized pine and larch trees. Due to greater durability, larch falls off more slowly compared to pine. Further growth of pine-linden and larch-­linden plantations depends on quantity and quality of undergrowth, its viability and growing conditions. In Forest experimental station, natural renewal prevails, represented mainly by the following species: maple and linden. Saplings of pine, larch, oak, and birch appear on some permanent test plots, but soon die due to unfavorable conditions. Oak undergrowth is also unreliable due to powdery mildew infection. The greatest loss of growth occurs in unfavorable growing conditions due to increased recreational loads.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(3):373-384
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Animal breeding

Influence of succinic acid Acidum succinicum on chinchilla growth in postembryonic period

Golovacheva N.A., Selivanova I.R., Chichenkova M.A., Filatova P.A., Antonova V.S.


In animal husbandry, special attention is paid to biological additives and natural metabolites used in the development of feeds that ensure productivity of animals and increase resistance to adverse environmental factors. Such additives actively influence energy metabolism and do not harm even in case of an overdose, due to the absence of xenobiotic effects inherent in a large number of synthetic drugs. The purpose of the research was to study growth dynamics of chinchillas against the background of drug «Succinic acid forte». The experiments were carried out on chinchillas 55–61 days old. At the same time, succinic acid (Acidum succinicum) was given to the chinchillas of the experimental group for 30 days in addition to the main diet — 20 mg/kg of live weight, pre-mixed with a small amount of water, then chinchillas were fed individually from the syringe. Determination of the dynamics of live weight was carried out using individual weighing of animals at the beginning of the experiment when forming groups, and then every ten days before feeding. When analyzing the main productive indicators, a direct pattern was noted — use of succinic acid in the diet of young chinchillas led to an increase in growth rate. So, 20 days after the start of the experiment, indicators of absolute gain in live weight of experimental animals were 32.07 % (p = 0.001), and after 30 days — 45.34 % (p = < 0.001) more than in the control, where in the feeding of chinchillas, only the main diet was used without additional introduction of succinic acid.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(3):385-398
pages 385-398 views

Genetics and selection of animals

Allelic frequency of beta-lactoglobulin gene in different cattle breeds

Khudyakova N.A., Kozhevnikova I.S., Stupina A.O., Klassen I.A., Selkova I.V.


The results of research on the frequency of genotypes AA, AB, BB and alleles A and B of milk protein beta-lactoglobulin in various cattle breeds over the past decades were presented and summarized. The livestock of the following foreign countries was considered: Italy, India and the Czech Republic. Also, on the territory of the Russian Federation, breeding stock and sires of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Tatarstan, Pskov, Samara and Arkhangelsk regions, as well as sires in the Altai Territory, were studied. Black-and-­White breed is the most studied one. Moreover, there are data on the Simmental and Kholmogory breeds of cattle. The frequency of allele B among the breeding stock of Black-and-­White breed in farms ranged from 0.21 to 0.64. The frequency of allele B among the breeding stock of Simmental breed in farms ranged from 0.42 to 0.65. The frequency of allele B among the breeding stock of Kholmogory breed in farms was from 0.60 to 0.70. The frequency of allele B among sires of Black-and-­White breed ranged from 0.43 to 0.69. In most farms, BB genotype leads in terms of quality indicators of milk productivity, and AB genotype leads in quantitative indicators of milk productivity. However, in some farms, AA genotype prevails in terms of milk yield and protein, and this genotype is also associated with a high content of dry skimmed milk residue and resistance to mastitis. Thus, further in-depth study of the beta-lactoglobulin gene is necessary, since new data will expand the understanding of the effect of this gene on economically useful traits of animals and will eliminate contradictions in the available data.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(3):399-410
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Veterinary science

Efficacy of COP-based protocol used with raltegravir in treatment of cats with mediastinal lymphoma and progressive viral leukemia

Zenchenkova A.P., Vatnikov Y.A.


Mediastinal lymphoma is a common disease in both human and veterinary medicine and is frequently diagnosed in cats infected with feline leukemia virus. The disease is considered a negative prognostic factor for affected animals. The retrospective research included 5 FeLV-positive cats with confirmed mediastinal lymphoma and progressive viral leukemia. The purpose was to study the response of FeLV-positive cats to standard chemotherapy protocol: cyclophosphamide 250 mg/m2 IV, vincristine 0.5 mg/m2 IV, prednisolone 20…40 mg/m2 orally (COP), survival of animals and side effects associated with chemotherapeutic treatment. All studied cats received raltegravir (Isentress, MSD, USA) orally at a dose of 20 mg/kg every 12 hours. Improvement in clinical signs associated with mediastinal lymphoma was observed after the 3rd course of chemotherapy. The clinical response rate was 80 % (40 % full remission, 40 % partial remission, 20 % unchanged status). The average lifespan of FeLV-positive cats treated with chemotherapy for mediastinal lymphoma was 1091.2 days, with a maximum lifespan of 1364 days and a minimum lifespan of 775 days. Rate of clinical response, as well as lifespan expectancy of affected cats, was higher than in previous studies. This is probably due to raltegravir, which can reduce the viral load and thus control the course of progressive infection. Side effects were found in 100 % of FeLV-positive cats: with anorexia — in two animals (60 %), vomiting — in two (40 %), neutropenia — in four (80 %), thrombocytopenia — in all cats (100 %), anemia — in three (60 %) and azotemia — in one animal (20 %). Overall, the efficacy of the COP protocol was satisfactory, and chemotherapy treatment can be offered to owners of FeLV-positive cats with mediastinal lymphoma, if the owner is reluctant to opt for euthanasia of the affected animal.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(3):411-417
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Pathogenetic factors associated with formation of acute abdominal pain syndrome in dogs with gastroenteritis

Karamyan A.S., Kuprina E.A., Lutsay V.I., Kuznetsov V.I., Semenova V.I.


Intercorrelative relationships between various clinical and laboratory parameters in dogs with acute gastroenteritis were studied. In dogs with acute alimentary gastroenteritis (n = 31), pain rating scale score significantly (p ≤ 0.05) correlated with pulse rate (r = 0.58), respiratory rate (r = 0.50), hematocrit (r = 0.47), ESR (r = 0.72), number of erythrocytes (r = 0.50) and leukocytes (r = 0.77), concentration of albumins (r = –0.52), globulins (r = 0.59), α1‑globulins (r = 0.49), α2‑globulins (r = 0.42), β-globulins (r = –0.36), γ-globulins (r = 0.59), C-reactive protein (r = 0.82), serum activity of ALT (r = 0.70), AST (r = 0.39), α-amylase (r = 0.38), alkaline phosphatase (r = 0.83) and serum concentration of creatinine (r = 0.42), tumor necrosis factor-α (r = 0.82), interleukin‑4 (r = 0.92), interleukin‑6 (r = 0.92), interferon-γ (r = 0.91), interleukin‑1α (r = 0.85), interleukin‑8 (r = 0.91). The following changes were noted in the body of dogs with acute gastroenteritis: local and systemic immune-­inflammatory response activated, pain, intoxication, dehydration syndrome, disorders of motor, secretory, absorption, excretory function of gastrointestinal tract formed, secondary hepatopathy and pancreatopathy developed. In dogs with acute gastroenteritis, there were also statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) correlations between the number of erythrocytes and hematocrit (r = 0.65), MCHC (r = 0.32), ESR (r = 0.35), hemoglobin concentration (r = 0.73) and leukocyte count (r = 0.35); between MCV and hematocrit (r = 0.62), MCHC (r = –0.64); between MCV and MCHC (r = –0.64); MCH and MCHC (r = 0.40); ESR and leukocyte count (r = 0.53). Changes in intercorrelative relationships between clinical and laboratory parameters in dogs with acute gastroenteritis can be considered as predictors of severity of the pathological process.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(3):418-427
pages 418-427 views

Cytological and microbiotic aspects of the diagnosis of otitis externa in dogs

Pustovit E.A., Pimenov N.V.


The purpose of the study was to compare cytological samples from two consecutive swabs obtained from ear canals of dogs with otitis externa and to determine the minimum number of samples required to obtain up-to-date information on the degree of microbiological contamination of the affected ear canals. Samples were obtained using sterile applicators with a cotton tip, which were sequentially inserted into ear canal until slight resistance (the junction between vertical and horizontal parts of ear canal), after making a circular motion, the applicator was removed and the material from the tip was applied to the glass slide with rolling movements so that on each slide there were four single parallel smears — two from each ear of the dog. The slides were air dried for one hour and stained using the standard Diff-­Quick method. The actual counting was carried out at 1000 × magnification (at a high magnification field). Bacteria were differentiated according to their shape into cocci and bacilli. The numbers of bacteria and fungi in the two samples were compared using the Wilcoxon matched pair test. Qualitative agreement between two consecutive swabs was determined using the k-test. Among the studied animals, a breed predisposition to otitis externa was revealed in Cocker Spaniels and French Bulldogs, and an anatomical predisposition in animals with drooping auricles. There was no significant difference in the number of microorganisms present in two ear cytology samples taken consecutively from the same ear at the same site in the external auditory canal, and there was significant agreement between the results of two consecutive smears for the presence of cocci and rods. For yeast, the agreement was only moderate. The data obtained indicate that in cases of otitis externa in dogs, reproducibility of cytological pattern with a single sample of material, as a rule, reflects current stage of pathogenesis of the disease and provides the best opportunity to detect local proliferative activity of opportunistic microbiota and corresponding inflammatory response of the macroorganism.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(3):428-436
pages 428-436 views

Veterinary sanitary inspection

Ecological, epizootic, sanitary and hygienic problems of echinococcosis in domestic goats and dogs in the North Caucasus

Bittirov A.M., Shemyakova S.A., Laipanov B.K., Gazaeva A.A., Bittirov I.A., Shopinskaya M.I.


Echinococcal invasion, included by the World Health Organization in the list of especially socially dangerous parasitic zoonoses, is an unresolved epidemic, epizootic and sanitary-­hygienic problem for the population and animals in more than 250 countries of the world. The purpose of the research was to study the epizootic and sanitary-­hygienic problems of echinococcosis of domestic goats in the North Caucasus region. In 2019–2022, the research was carried out in 3 climatic zones of Kabardino-­Balkaria. The objects were liver and lungs of 120 slaughter goats. The intestines were dissected from 15 dog corpses slaughtered in accordance with the International Rules for the Humane Treatment of Animals (2012). Monitoring of echinococcosis in dogs and goats was performed by the method of autopsy of organs and tissues according to K.I. Scriabin (1928). The number of eggs of taeniid type in faeces of dogs and in 520 samples of water from natural reservoirs of the Terek river basin was determined according to the guidelines of Russian Research Institute of Parasitology (1986). In plain climatic zone, index of occurrence of cystic Echinococcus granulosus invasion in liver and lungs of goats was 18 %, in foothill zone — 24 %, in mountain zone — 28 % (on average, 25 %). Extracted from liver and lungs of sheep, transparent cysts of echinococcus contained protoscolexes in 100 % of the samples, which indicates the likelihood of foci involving dogs and wild predators in the region. Natural reservoirs of Kabardino-­Balkaria are also large biotopes of teniosis. Contamination of river water samples with taeniid eggs is 11.0…37.0 %. The region belongs to the group of subjects with high rates of zoonosis in animals due to violation of the terms of deworming for priotary dogs, lack of sanitary and preventive work with the population. According to the epizootic situation for animal echinococcosis, the Kabardino-­Balkarian Republic can be attributed to disadvantaged regions of the Russian Federation, as there is an increase in the number of dogs with echinococcosis and goats infected with fertile cysts. Sanitary and hygienic pollution of the Terek river and its tributaries, Malka, Baksan, Cherek and Chegem, with eggs of cestodes is a threat to the spread of echinococcosis among animals and humans.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(3):437-446
pages 437-446 views

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