Vol 16, No 3 (2021)

Genetics and plant breeding
Prospects of seabuckthorn breeding activity at Lisavenko Research Institute of Horticulture for Siberia
Zubarev Y.A., Gunin A.V., Panteleeva E.I., Vorobjeva A.V.
Abstract

Seabuckthorn gene pool in collections of Lisavenko Research Institute of Horticulture for Siberia which is a division of the Federal Altai Scientific Center of Agro-BioTechnologies is represented by more than 14 thousand hybrid seedlings and over 450 varieties under selection. It allows to provide comprehensive selection on different agronomic traits and to achieve permanent assortment improvement. The main aim of the research was to select seabuckthorn varieties distinguished by characteristics that meet the requests of industrial sector with focus on various technological approaches. Seabuckthorn varieties of hybrid origin from crossbreeding of 1993-2005 were studied. The experiments were carried out in forest-steppe zone of Altai Krai in 2016-2020. According to the results of comprehensive evaluation, groups of the most promising varieties were proposed as a source of various agronomic traits. The potential of breeding activity was shown as well as possibility of seabuckthorn assortment improving was proved. In particular, within sweet-fruited varieties such samples as 57-01-1, 146-02-1 and 226-00-1 with sugar-acid index of 6.4, 5.4 and 5.3, respectively, have been selected as well as fruit of 198-99-3a and 62-01-2 varieties weighed about 1.0 g, that is almost 0.3 g higher compared to Chuiskaya variety (control) and Altaiskaya (the sweetest one). Two varieties - 149-00-3 and 664-00-2 - were included to the group with very low tear-off force of fruits - 95 and 110 g, respectively, which was significantly lower compared to the control (Chuiskaya) and the standard variety (Anastasia). That means high suitability of these varieties for harvesting by hand picking. The hybrid 185-99-5 had an average fruit weight of 1.67 g which was two times higher than fruit weight of the control variety. Highly promising red colored variety (258-03-1) had high oil content in fruits. That positions it as an extremely promising variety for seabuckthorn oil concentrate processing. Most of estimated varieties were included in various reference groups demonstrating by that the combination of agronomic traits.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2021;16(3):183-197
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Plant protection
Development of new immunoanalytical test systems for diagnostics of potato blackleg caused by Dickeya spp. bacteria
Razo S., Galushka P.A., Varitsev Y.A., Zherdev A.V., Safenkova I.V., Pakina E.N., Dzantiev B.B.
Abstract

Potato blackleg caused by Dickeya spp. bacteria is one of the most important bacterial diseases of potatoes. The rapid spread of this disease in the territory of Russia requires new effective diagnostic tools for the timely detection of infection. To solve this problem, antisera specific to Dickeya spp. were obtained. Polyclonal antibodies isolated from antisera have shown high affinity for the main species of Dickeya spp. ( D. solani, D. dianthicola, D. chrysanthemi, D. dadantii, D. paradisiaca ). Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) test systems have been developed based on specific and high affinity antibodies that were obtained. For ELISA, the detection limit was 0.8 × 105 cells/mL for D. solani and 2 × 104 cells/mL for D. dianthicola . For LFIA, suitable for use in non-laboratory conditions, the detection limit of D. solani was 2 × 105 cells/mL and the analysis time was 15 minutes. When testing potato seed material, LFIA test system confirmed positive results of ELISA determination in 75 % of samples, and negative - in 100 % of samples.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2021;16(3):198-214
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The results of catching winged aphids with water traps on potato plantings in the southern part of the Arkhangelsk region
Shamanin A.A., Korelina V.A., Berim M.N., Popova L.A.
Abstract

Dynamics of the number and species composition of aphids were studied on seed potatoes using yellow water traps in the southern part of the Arkhangelsk region in 2018-2019. 12 species of winged aphids (165 insects) were identified in 2018, and 16 species (115 insects) - in 2019. The following types dominated: black bean aphid A. fabae Scop., bird cherry-oat aphid R. padi L., blackcurrant-sowthistle aphid H. lactucae L., glasshouse-potato aphid A. solani Kalt. The share of aphids as direct and indirect vectors of viral diseases was 91 % of the total number in 2018, and 79.1 % in 2019. The pest population of potato plants depended directly on weather conditions of the growing season. The sum of the average daily temperatures during the period of catching aphids was 1273.3 °C in 2018, and 983.3 °C - in 2019. During the experimental period, 131.6 mm of precipitation fell in 2018, and 280.4 mm - in 2019. Due to the constant presence of aphids on seed potato crops, annual monitoring of pest population and, in case of necessity, protective measures are required.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2021;16(3):215-225
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Soil science and agrochemistry
Microbial respiration and functional diversity of soil microbial community under treeline shifts in the Northwestern Caucasus
Selezneva A.E., Ivashchenko K.V., Sushko S.V., Zhuravleva A.I., Ananyeva N.D., Blagodatsky S.A.
Abstract

In mountain areas, one of the noticeable results of modern climate change is rapid shift of treelines to subalpine and alpine meadows. Such vegetation shifts is associated with a change in quality of the plant residues entering the soils, which in turn can affect the mineralization activity (basal respiration) and functional diversity of the soil microbial community. Therefore, the study was aimed at assessing the soil microbial (basal respiration and functional diversity) and chemical (C, N, C/N, pH) properties (0-10 cm) along the reserved and grazed forest-meadow transects of the Northwestern Caucasus (Karachay-Cherkess Republic), as well as evaluating an effect of vegetation type and land use on variation of these soil properties. It was found that the C and N contents (for both land usees), pH and basal respiration (reserved slope) significantly increase from forest to meadow soils. In contrary, the microbial functional diversity decreased from forest to meadow soils, which might be due to less diverse organic compounds entering the soil only with grass residues than their combination with forest litter. Two-way ANOVA showed that soil microbial functional diversity, pH, C and N along the studied forest-meadow transects was mostly associated with vegetation type (14…39 % of the explained variation), and C/N and basal respiration - with land use (33…36 % of the explained variation). Thus, a land use change will have a more significant effect on the mineralization activity of soil microbial community than a treeline shifts.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2021;16(3):226-237
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Landscape architecture and design
Creating Healing and Therapeutic Landscapes: Design Experience
Krasilnikova E.E., Zhuravleva I.V., Zaika I.A.
Abstract

Healthy longevity is becoming the main element in assessing the quality of the formed urban environment. The relevance of creating a comfortable urban environment is of great importance for leveling the negative processes of urbanization, burdened by globalization and COVID-19. The article presents the results of designing health-improving landscapes with their integration into the urban-ecological framework of the urban greening system of Sevastopol. The study of the design area was carried out using generally accepted methods of field research.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2021;16(3):238-254
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Protective afforestation
Common oak survival in the forest ecosystem of the Volga-Akhtuba floodplain in the north of Astrakhan region
Bakaneva A.A.
Abstract

Forests in our natural environment play an important role. They are a necessary natural resource and perform many functions in the forest ecosystem. As in our country, as well as abroad, due to numerous studies, the enormous role of forests in preserving the ecological balance of the environment has been confirmed. To ensure the uniqueness of the Astrakhan region, it is necessary to restore Lower Volga forests, which in turn perform significant functions, namely: influence on hydrological regime, protect soil from degradation, wind and water erosion, preserve recreational potential of the territory and provide local population with stable agricultural production. In spring and fall of 2019, employees of the Precaspian Agrarian Federal Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences planted 120 seedlings of common oak (60 plants in spring and 60 plants in autumn) in the areas located in the right bank of the Volga-Akhtuba floodplain to the south of Solenoye Zaimishche village. At the end of October 2020, 64 seedlings (53 %) of common oak survived. The best (100 %) survival rate was noted in annual seedlings, which were planted in spring at the site with shading. The greatest plant death (20 %) was in two-year-old seedlings planted in fall at sites with no shading.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2021;16(3):255-263
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Survival of forest strips in ash and slag dump territory of Chita combined heat and power plant
Banshchikova E.A., Zhelibo T.V., Makarov V.P., Larin V.S.
Abstract

This article is a continuation of research on creation of forest protective strips on the territory of sanitary protection zone with intensive influence of ash and slag dump of the Chita CHPP-1 (TGC-14). Earlier (2017-2019), plantings were made focused on reducing atmospheric pollution, improving soil properties, regulating surface runoff that prevents erosion, fixing ground cover, reducing wind speed and retaining small solid particles. The aim of the research was to analyze survival rate and health of woody and shrubby plant species in protective forest strips; to obtain linear indicators of plant growth and development in experimental plots. In the course of the research, it was found that the overall survival of plants in the experimental plots differed by year. Survival rate of woody and shrubby plant species also differed. Larix gmelinii, Betula pendula, Hippophae rhamnoides, Crataegus sanguinea, Caragana spinosa and Elaeagnus commutata had the highest survival rate in the experiment. The survival of shrubs was generally better than that of trees. Among shrub species, Caragana spinosa (92 and 81 %) and Elaeagnus commutata (95 and 86 %) were characterized by good survival in plantings in 2017 and 2018, respectively. Rosa acicularis (20 %), Spiraea media and Sorbaria sorbifolia (28 %) showed low survival in 2019. The plant survival varies significantly depending on the planting season, types of seedlings and planting technology. The use of planting material (wildfowl) with a large earthen lump increases plant survival in forest protection strips. Unfavorable factors that have a negative impact on the transplanted plants are man-made landscapes, harmful atmospheric impurities from the ash and slag dump. Moreover, competitive relations with herbaceous plants, intensive grazing of animals, insect and disease damage have an additional impact. For healthy growth of plants, it is necessary to perform care for plantings, and organizational measures (fencing of experimental plots with signal tapes). It is important to continue observations and repeat plantings to clarify the adaptive ability of plant species grown in protective plantings, improve planting technology.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2021;16(3):264-274
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Animal breeding
Effect of fiber and energy in diet on productivity and formation of microbiocenosis in piglets
Vorobyova N.V., Popov V.S.
Abstract

Today, an important role in the development of pig breeding is given to feeding animals, especially piglets during the transition from milk to vegetable feeding. This crucial period is associated with physiological characteristics of piglet growth and development. Therefore, the problem of developing mixed fodder that gives rise to high weight gain in piglets is relevant for pig farming. The experiments were conducted on piglets aged 15-42 days in Nadezhda farm, Kursk region. The purpose of the research was to increase productivity and form the microbiocenosis in the intestines of piglets. During the study period, barley-wheat mixed fodder was used with additional ingredients: feed fat, alfalfa grass flour and probiotic. Feed fats provide an optimal level of energy for piglets’ growth. The active substances of alfalfa flour are involved in all metabolic processes in the body, making it effective. Probiotic increases availability and digestibility of feed nutrients. The studies proved that the new composition of SK-3 increased the average daily weight gain by 20.5 %, the gross formation per piglet increased to 21 %. At the same time, survival of animals in the period 15-42 days increased to 100 %. The greatest growth of beneficial intestinal microflora from 107 to 109 CFU/g of feces was observed after feeding experimental piglets with mixed fodder containing grass flour, feed fats and probiotic by day 42. In comparison with the control animals, experimental animals showed a decrease in E. coli - from 107 to 104. The importance of using such ingredients as alfalfa grass flour, feed fats and probiotic in mixed fodder for piglets of 15-42 days of age was revealed. The relevance of the development of new mixed fodder was justified.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2021;16(3):275-283
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