Vol 17, No 4 (2022)

Morphology and biochemistry of plants

Effect of biofertilizers and osmotic stress on morphological parameters of spring barley seedlings

Panfilov A.L., Abdrashitov R.R.


One of ways to increase resistance of agricultural plants to abiotic stresses is the use of biofertilizers with anti-stress and growth-regulating properties. They improve absorption of nitrogen and phosphorus from organic fertilizers and soil. The purpose of the research was to study sowing qualities of seeds, morphological indicators of spring barley seedlings after presowing seed treatment with biofertilizers under conditions of sufficient humidification and osmotic stress. The laboratory experiment was carried out to study the effect of biofertilizers on seedlings of spring barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. Gubernatorsky under conditions of sufficient and insufficient humidification. The barley seeds were treated once according to the following scheme: 1. control (distilled water) 10 L/t; 2. Gumi 20 M potash (0.4 L/t); 3. Borogum-M complex (0.2 L/t); 4. PEG 6000 (100 g/L); 5. Gumi 20 M (0.4 L/t) + PEG 6000 (100 g/L); 6. Borogum-M complex (0.2 L/t) + PEG 6000 (100 g/L). Treatment of spring barley seeds with biofertilizers increased the germination rate and germination capacity by 3…5 and 2 %, respectively. When modeling drought using PEG-6000, the sowing qualities of seeds decreased by 4 %. Under conditions of sufficient humidification, the studied biofertilizers had a complex positive effect on shoot and root weight of barley seedlings. In addition, the average length of roots, shoots and the total root length increased. The number of roots did not change significantly. Lack of moisture decreased the effectiveness of Borogum-M complex biofertilizer, while Gumi 20 M potassium biofertilizer had a positive effect on the parameters of barley seedlings under water stress conditions.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(4):425-436
pages 425-436 views

Crop production

Promising varieties of sour cherry Prunus cerasus L. with a complex of fruit quality traits for growing in the southern Russia

Zaremuk R.S., Kopnina T.A.


Southern assortment of cherries does not quite meet the modern requirements of production. Many varieties are low-productive, not resistant to cherry leaf spot ( Coccomyces hiemalis ) and moniliosis ( Monilia cinerea ), small-fruited, with low taste qualities. However, new varieties have been created that have not been studied by the complex of consumer and commodity qualities of fruits. Thus, evaluation of new varieties for these traits is relevant. The aim of the research was to evaluate cherry varieties of different origin for commodity, biochemical, and consumer qualities of fruits. The research was carried out in the Kuban horticultural zone of the Krasnodar territory. Objects of the research were 9 varieties of sour cherry trees. Field and laboratory studies were conducted according to ‘Program and methodology of varietal study of fruit, berry and nut crops’ (1999), ‘Methodological instructions on chemical and technological variety testing of vegetable, fruit and berry crops for canning industry’ (1993). Statistical analysis was carried out according to B.A. Dospekhov (2014) and G.F. Lakin (1990). It was found that the average fruit weight of cherry varieties varied not significantly - from 2.72 to 6.45 g, which was confirmed by the coefficient of variation (23.3 %). Indicators of maximum and minimum fruit weight varied significantly in varieties, coefficients of variation were 27.2 and 29.7 %, respectively. The following cherry varieties with large fruits were identified: Timati, Igrushka, Duk Ivanovna, Duk Khodosa, Prizvaniya and Svetlaya. were distinguished. Cherry varieties with high sugar content in fruits were as follows: Feyа, Dzhusi Frut and Igrushka. Feyа, Duk Khodosa, Prizvanie, Svetlaya and Dzhusi Frut had fruits with low acidity; Feyа, Dzhusi Frut and Igrushka fruits were characterized by high content of soluble solids in fruits. Feyа, Igrushka and Duk Khodosa fruits had the highest content of vitamin C; Igrushka, Duk Khodosa, Prizvanie, Svetlaya and Dzhusi Frut were rich in Vitamin P; Duk Khodosa, Prizvanie, Dzhusi Frut and Duk Ivanovna had the largest anthocyanin content. Therefore, Igrushka and Duk Khodosa cherry varieties are recommended for growing in the southern Russia and breeding for improvement of fruit quality.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(4):437-447
pages 437-447 views

Introducing Schizandra chinensis into the Southern Urals

Bilalova R.A.


Long-term introduction of Schizandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. was studied studying. The aim of the research was to assess the introduction resistance of Schisandra chinensis from the collection of lianas of South-Ural Botanical Garden-Institute, Ural Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The 7 phenological growth stages were studied in 2014-2021. The prospects for introduction were determined according to P.I. Lapin and S.V. Sidneva, introduction resistance was assessed by the method of N.V. Trulevich. The following parameters were assessed: completeness of shoot development cycle, stability of rhythmic processes, vital state, life form, rate of ontogenesis, and renewal. According to the results of the research, lemongrass plants successfully passed the introduction tests. The species stably goes through all phases of seasonal development under cultivation, it is adapted to local climatic conditions and has high winter hardiness. Moreover, Schizandra chinensis is highly decorative throughout the growing season (more than 5 months). In accordance with the integral assessment, the taxon is assigned to the first group of prospects for introduction; Schisandra chinensis is a resistant plant. The crop is promising for use in recreational areas of Ufa and other settlements of the Southern Urals.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(4):448-454
pages 448-454 views

Effect of microbiological agents on spring barley cultivated in the north of the Astrakhan region

Naumova N.A.


The aim of the study was to determine effectiveness of the use of microbiological agents in spring barley cultivation. The experiments were conducted in the conditions of light chestnut soils in the north of the Astrakhan region, Chernoyarsky district, Solenoe Zaymishche village in 2018-2020. The use of this cultural method contributed to two-fold increase in the productivity of spring barley (3.5 t/ha), compared with the control (without any seed treatment - 1 .4 t/ha). The pre-sowing inoculation of seeds increased field germination and number of mature plants: by 75 and 26.8 % for Mizorin, 79 and 40.9 % for BisolbiFit, 78 and 37.6 % for Rizoagrin, respectively, in comparison with the control. Application of these microbiological agents in spring barley cultivation can be recommended to both small and large farms, which will help to rise the agriculture of the region to a high level of production of spring barley.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(4):455-465
pages 455-465 views

Genetics and plant breeding

Breeding value of safflower in arid conditions of the Northern Caspian

Zaitseva N.A., Yachmeneva E.V., Klimova I.I.


Low and unstable yields of the main oilseed crops do not create interest for their large-scale cultivation in conditions of the Northern Caspian - A strakhan region. For this reason, gross harvest of oilseeds is reducing significantly creating a vegetable oil shortage. Currently, safflower cultivation is relevant due to high drought resistance and quality indicators of safflower oil. 24 collection samples of safflower were studied on light chestnut soils of the Lower Volga region in 2019-2021. The experiments on safflower cultivars from seed collection of Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry were carried out at the experimental site of Precaspian Agrarian Federal Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Influence of the main abiotic and biotic environmental factors on morpho-biological and economic characteristics of safflower was determined. Based on the results obtained, the following promising samples having breeding value as a starting material for creation of new cultivars were identified: Gila, Shahalli-260, Tsambuli, Shirkas, Talan, Centr 70, Moldir, Nurlan, Aleksandrit, Shifo, Sinaloa-90. Productivity and oil content of the selected cultivars exceeded the indicators of cv. Astrakhan 747 (standard) by 0.43…1.06 t/ha and 1.75…3.02 %, respectively.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(4):466-472
pages 466-472 views

Plant protection

Identification of Pseudomonas fuscovaginae, Pseudomonas syringae and Xanthomonas translucens in wheat seeds using PCR

Muvingi M., Slovareva O.Y., Zargar M.


The causative agents of grain crops bacteriosis viz. Pseudomonas fuscovaginae , Pseudomonas syringae and Xanthomonas translucens are regulated by phytosanitary requirements of the largest importers of Russian grain - Egypt, Turkey, Bangladesh, Nigeria and Pakistan. Therefore, it requires the development of rapid methods for their diagnosis. The PCR method, which is the fastest and most reliable in testing laboratories, needs optimal preparation of the test material. The aim of the study was to optimize the process of preparing seed samples for subsequent detection and identification of P. fuscovaginae, P. syringae and X. translucens by PCR. Wheat grain samples were soaked in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for 2 hours and infected with suspensions of P. fuscovaginae, P. syringae pv. coronafaciens and X. translucens at various concentrations. Then, the infected grain samples were crushed and subjected to two-stage centrifugation. DNA was isolated from the obtained analytical samples and species-specific PCR was performed for each bacterial species. It was found that a two-hour soaking of the seeds and their treatment with a homogenizer is sufficient to effectively destroy each grain in the sample and ensure the release of bacteria into the liquid part of the sample. The first low-speed centrifugation allowed the crushed grain to settle efficiently and remove excess starch from the supernatant. High-speed centrifugation of the supernatant made it possible to obtain a concentrated microbiota contained in the grain sample. To obtain DNA of sufficient quality for PCR test, the kit ‘Proba-GS’ (AgroDiagnostika, Russia) was used for DNA extraction. Using ‘Pseudomonas fuscovaginae-RT’ kit (Syntol, Russia) and PsyF/PsyR and 4F1/4R 1 primers, DNA of P. fuscovaginae P. syringae and X. translucens , respectively, was successfully detected in each of the samples infected with these bacteria at concentrations of 103 CFU/ml. The absence of PCR inhibition was noted. The method of removing starch from samples for molecular diagnostics of phytopathogens was used for the first time. Application of these methods will allow diagnosing pathogens of bacterioses within one day.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(4):473-483
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Animal breeding

Reproductive capacity and milk production of cows depending on their physio-logical status during lactation

Kornelaeva M.V., Karlikova G.G.


Due to violation of husbandry, feeding, milking, non-observance of sanitary requirements, especially in postpartum period, cases of endometritis, mastitis and limb diseases in cows increase in conditions of intensive cattle breeding. These diseases adversely affect reproductive and productive qualities of animals, thus causing great financial losses to agribusiness. Therefore, increasing longevity of animals, reducing percentage of their elimination due to various diseases, reducing risk of economically significant diseases in dairy herds by selecting highly productive animals with high resistance to common diseases are relevant. The aim of the research was to study phenotypic relationship between fertility level and milk production of black-motley Holsteinized cows with different diseases at the farm in Moscow region. The research materials were 1234 records of diseases - endometritis, mastitis and limb diseases - obtained from veterinary outpatient logs (2015-2021) of the breeding organization. Information about 5 signs of milk productivity and 3 signs of fertility of the studied population of black-motley Holsteinized dairy cattle was taken from ‘Seleks’ database. According to the results, significant (p < 0.01) increase was observed in sick animals in comparison with healthy ones: number of inseminations per lactation - b y 33.5 %, open days - b y 7.3 %, milk days - b y 4.35 %. Milk yield was higher by 19.4 % (p < 0.01), fat and protein mass fraction - by 0.32 and 0.33 % (p < 0.01), respectively, fat and protein yield - b y 82 and 69 kg (p < 0.01), respectively, compared to healthy animals. When comparing the indices in animals with one, two and three diseases, significant differences were obtained both between the groups with single diseases and complexes. For fertility traits, the indices increased significantly with the number of diseases from 4 to 20 % for individual traits. For milk production traits, there was a tendency for indices to decrease with increasing number of diseases.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(4):484-498
pages 484-498 views

Use of Chlorella vulgaris as a dietary supplement for quails bred at private farms

Medvedeva .N., Zorkina O.V., Moskovets M.V.


Some aspects of improving efficiency of quail breeding in Russia, in particular in private farms were studied. It is emphasized that in times of crisis, private farms are able to solve several problems: provide employment for rural residents, produce food, and serve as a source of additional income for people. In Russia, consumption of animal protein in poultry meat has increased to 34 kg. The aim of the research was to study the issues of breeding quails on small plots, at private farms; the use of Chlorella vulgaris microalgae in the diet of poultry, which has become intensively used in various sectors of the economy, in particular, in animal husbandry and improvement of natural reservoirs. Methods of analysis, observation, experiment, comparison were used in the course of the study; photographing and timing of resources spent on the maintenance of quail birds was carried out. The Russian and foreign scientific literature was studied, the presented material was compared with the results obtained during the experiment. One aspect of successful quail breeding is to ensure a balanced diet - composition of feeds produced by local producers for quails was studied. The observations and experiments carried out on Moscow White Giant quails at E. Moskovets private farm (Volgograd region) proved the expediency of introducing into the diet a feed additive - a strain of Chlorella vulgaris IFR C.111, which contains protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, mineral salts, trace elements in sufficient quantities. The technology of poultry feeding with Chlorella vulgaris was shown. It resulted in higher survival rate of quails, increase in poultry live weight, and increase in profitability of production by 1.3 %. Data reflecting the conditions of quail keeping, feeding and cage breeding in small areas and/or private farms were shown.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(4):499-513
pages 499-513 views

Genetics and selection of animals

Breeding characteristics of Romanov sheep depending on polymorphism of growth hormone gene

Abramova M.V., Ilina A.V., Barysheva M.S., Malina J.I., Evdokimov E.G.


The search for new markers of high productivity of sheep and the introduction of evaluation and selection methods for these indicators is an urgent direction in breeding of Russian sheep. The material for the research was the results of assessment of exterior, live weight of Romanov sheep. Genetic studies were carried out using tissue samples (ear plucking). Polymorphism of growth hormone gene in Romanov sheep was evaluated by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and polymerase chain reaction. Evaluation of polymorphism of growth hormone gene in the population of Romanov sheep showed the presence of three allelic variants - AA, AB and BB, with a frequency of 0.24, 0.63 and 0.14, respectively. The statistically significant difference between the indicators of live weight in animals with genotypes GHAB and GHAA, GHAB and GHBB was: at birth 210 g and 140 g (P ≥ 0.95), respectively; at weaning 350 g and 1260 g (P ≥ 0.95), respectively. The phenotypic variability of live weight was the highest at birth and at weaning and amounted to 31.7…32.5 % for all genotypes. Animals with genotypes GHAA and GHAB outperformed their peers with genotype GHBB in dimensions of rump width in tuber coxae, rump width in tuber trochanterica, chest width, chest circumference, and therefore, had a wide body. When studying the phenotypic and genetic correlations of measurements of exterior and live weight at the age of 12 months, a reliable positive relationship was established with height at withers height (rP = +0.13*; rG = +0.02), rump height (rP = +0.14**; rG = +0.03), rump length (rP = +0.14**; rG = +0.02). The new knowledge gained about polymorphism of GH gene and its relationship with productive traits of Romanov sheep will allow for in-depth evaluation, targeted selection and selection of individuals with desirable genotypes.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(4):514-526
pages 514-526 views

Veterinary science

Morphological characteristics of testicular interstitial cell tumors in dogs

Gazin A.A., Vatnikov Y.A., Abramova E.V.


The study presents an assessment of variability of histological structure, measurement, and comparison of size of the neoplasm obtained by ultrasonographic examination and pathological examination, as well as the morphometric dimensions of nuclei and cytoplasm of testicular interstitial cell tumors in dogs. The study involved 35 dogs with neoplasms of 46 testes, where 11 animals had interstitial cell tumors in both testes. Insignificant differences of the size of these neoplasms were revealed (p > 0.05) using ultrasonography and pathoanatomical measurement methods. Hence, it allows using both methods to assess the size of interstitial cell tumors. In the study, interstitial cell tumor was detected in both testes at once in 50 % of cases in dogs, however, this might be due to specific characteristics of the sample, and further research is required. In the course of scientific work, a morphological study showed the presence of variability in histological structure of interstitial cell tumors, which can lead to incorrect interpretation of the morphological picture and misdiagnosis, e. g. «adipocyte-like» morphology of interstitial cell tumors have morphological similarity to a benign neoplasm from adipose tissue - lipoma. In addition, there was an extremely pronounced difference in size of cytoplasm (from 23.6 to 148.4 µm; average 66.21 ± 22.42 µm) and nuclei (from 9 to 57.6 µm; average 23.19 ± 7.10 µm) in tumor cells. It proves the presence of pronounced anisocytosis and anisokariosis, which should indicate malignancy of the neoplasm, however, testicular interstitial cell tumors extremely rarely metastasize in practice and according to numerous studies.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(4):527-535
pages 527-535 views

Infestation of mice with ixodid ticks in forests of Belgorod region

Glamazdin I.G., Tkachev A.V., Tkacheva O.L., Krotova E.A., Drukovskiy S.G., Petrov A.K.


Rodents are one of the largest groups of existing mammals and number more than 2,270 known species, which is almost 42 % of the total biodiversity of worldwide-distributed mammals (except Antarctica and some islands). They are well adapted to various habitats and are known to live alongside people and livestock complexes. The purpose of the study was to study infestation of mice with ixodid ticks in forests of the Belgorod region adjacent to livestock and poultry farms. The study was carried out in 2019-2022. The extensiveness of mice infestation was observed in Sylvaemus sylvaticus species, which was 13.26 % higher (P < 0.05) than in Sylvimus flavicollis , and 24.33 % higher (P < 0.01) than in Apodemus agrarius . The intensity of infestation with preimaginal (larvae and nymphs) stages of Ixodes ricinus ticks had wide fluctuations depending on the type of synanthropic rodent. Thus, the highest intensity was noted in Sylvaemus sylvaticus mice, which was 8.73 and 13.56 % higher (P < 0.001) compared to Sylvimus flavicollis and Apodemus agrarius mice, respectively. The maximum infestation of male synanthropic mouse species was 31 ticks in Sylvaemus sylvaticus , 19 ticks in Sylvimus flavicollis , and 9 ticks in Apodemus agrarius . The intensity of infestation in synanthropic mice was the highest in the summer months (from July to August) and decreased slightly in autumn. In autumn, 41.2 % of the examined rodents were infested with ticks, the predominant species was Ixodes ricinus (larvae). Larvae and nymphs of Ixodes ricinus ticks were more often attached to rodents in the head area (mainly on the ears) - 82 %, less often on other parts of the body - 1 8 %. A smaller number of ticks were present on neck, body, legs, sometimes parasites were found on tail.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(4):536-545
pages 536-545 views

Mycotoxicological monitoring of feed and its role in prevention of animal mycotoxicoses

Dorozhkin V.I., Gerunov T.V., Simonova I.A., Gerunova L.K., Kryuchek Y.O., Tarasenko A.A., Chigrinski E.A.


Mycotoxins can accumulate in raw materials of plant origin at different technological stages of its production. Most often, the producers of mycotoxins are fungi of the genera Aspergillus , Fusarium , Penicillium and some others. The clinical symptoms of mycotoxicoses vary significantly, and lethal outcomes are possible. For this reason, the mycotoxicological study of various types of feed under production conditions is an indispensable component of veterinary support of industrial animal husbandry. As part of this study, a retrospective analysis of the results of a mycotoxicological study of feed for different animal species was carried out in the Omsk region in 2017-2021. All feeds received by the Omsk Regional Veterinary Laboratory for 5 years for the determination of mycotoxins were examined for the presence of ochratoxin A, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, aflatoxin B 1, deoxynivalenol. It was established that almost 70 % of the studied samples contained mycotoxins, including their maximum allowable level was exceeded in 74 samples. Exceeding the permissible levels was noted for the content of T-2 toxin (34 samples), zearalenone (27 samples), ochratoxin A (6 samples), aflatoxin B 1 (4 samples) and deoxynivalenol (3 samples). The largest number of cases of contamination was recorded in the study of feed and feed mixtures. The greatest danger is the multiple contamination of feed with mycotoxins. This increases the risk of developing comorbid conditions and the spread of opportunistic infections.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(4):546-554
pages 546-554 views

Microbial diversity in the cecum of broiler chickens after introduction of coumarin and feed antibiotic into the diet

Duskaev G.K., Lazebnik K.S., Klimova T.A.


In modern world, there is a need to search for alternatives to antibiotics due to the growing resistance of microorganisms. Plant extracts can be a promising replacement. Due to biological functions, they can suppress the development of various processes associated with pathogenicity and virulence, in particular, the Quorum sensing process. Based on the above, the aim of the study was to assess the bioactivity of 7,8-dihydroxy-4- methylcoumarin and 20% chlortetracycline in relation to the microbial diversity of the cecum of broiler chickens. 4 groups of broiler chickens were formed for the experiment. The control group received a diet without additives (basic diet (BD)); group I - BD + 20% chlortetracycline, at the dosage 0.63 g/kg bw per day, group II - BD + 7,8-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin at a dose of 9.0 mcg/ kg bw per day; Group III - BD + 7,8-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin + 20% chlortetracycline. The NGS of the 16S rRNA gene was used as a research method. Analysis of the results showed that addition of coumarin, the antibiotic and their combination to the poultry diet had an impact on formation of the microbial composition of intestine. Moreover, there was a decrease in the number of Lactobacillaceae , Lachnospiraceae and Erysipelotrichaceae families. In addition, the proportion of opportunistic Streptococcus flora decreased more than by 10 %.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(4):555-566
pages 555-566 views

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