RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries

Editor-in-Chief: Yuri A. Vatnikov, Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, Professor, Director of the Department of Veterinary Medicine of the Agrarian-Technological Institute of RUDN University

ISSN: 2312-797Х (Print) ISSN: 2312-7988 (Online)

Founded in 2006. Publication frequency: quarterly.

Peer-Review: double blind. Publication language: Russian, English

Open Access: Open AccessAPC: no article processing charge.

PUBLISHERPeoples’ Friendship University of Russia named after Patrice Lumumba (RUDN University)

Indexation: Russian Index of Science Citation, RSCI, WJCI, Google Scholar, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, CABI,  AGRIS, WorldCat, Cyberleninka, East View, DOAJ, Dimensions, ResearchBib, Research4Life, Lens, JournalTOCs

For previous titles of the journal, see history of the Journal


"RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries" is intended for publication of the results of fundamental and applied scientific research of Russian and foreign scientists (Agriculture) in the form of scientific articles, reviewing scientific materials, scientific reports, bibliographic reviews on certain topics of scientific research, historical information on figures of Russian and foreign science. The journal can publish materials whose scientific value and suitability for publication is estimated by the editorial board of the journal based on the results of peer review.

The composition of the Editorial Board consists of Russian and foreign experts who have made a significant contribution to the development of agriculture.

The journal is on the list of periodicals, which are recommended by the Highest Attestation Commission of the Russian Federation for the publication of abstracts of dissertation research.

You can subscribe to printed issues of the journal in any post office (the agency directory "Rospechat") or in the RUDN publishing house.

Since 2008 journal editions in abstract-bibliographic and full text form are available (Open Access) on the journal website and in the database of the Russian Science Citation Index on the platform of the Scientific Electronic Library

Focus and Scope, Cection Policies, Requirements for accepted articles , peer review rules , and other additional information are available in the relevant sections of this site.


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Current Issue

Vol 19, No 1 (2024): Factors of sustainable animal productivity: from genomics to therapy

Factors of sustainable animal productivity: from genomics to therapy

From the editor
Vatnikov Y.A.


RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2024;19(1):9-11
pages 9-11 views
Microsatellite analysis of Kalmyk cattle
Ubushieva V.S., Gorlov I.F., Chimidova N.V., Ubushieva A.V.

Development of specialized beef cattle breeding contributes to increase in beef production, which directly affects the country’s food security. Currently, increasing productivity of animals is the major trend of cattle breeding development, which in turn requires improvement of breeding. The effectiveness of breeding work depends on the assessment of genetic value of breeding animals. To control authenticity of animal origin is a prerequisite for conducting breeding work. One of the main directions of cattle breeding in Kalmykia is breeding of Kalmyk cattle. The aim of the research was to study genetic diversity of Kalmyk cattle populations using microsatellite analysis. The study was conducted in the Regional Research and Production Center for Reproduction of Kalmyk State University. 60 Kalmyk cattle from ‘Plodovitoe’ agricultural production company in Maloderbetovsky district were studied. PCR analysis was performed by 9 microsatellite loci: BM1824, BM 2113, INRA023, SPS 115, TGLA 122, TGLA 126, TGLA 227, ETH 10, ETH 225. It was found that the average number of alleles was 10.1, while the number of alleles per locus varied from 7 (BM 1824, SPS 115, ETH 10) to 18 (TGLA 122). The loci with the largest range of alleles were BM 2113 (12), INRA 023 (12), TGLA 122 (18) and TGLA 227 (12). The most informative loci were INRA 023, TGLA 122 and TGLA 227. The level of observed heterozygosity varied from 0.67 (ETH 10) to 0.83 (SPS 115, TGLA 227, ETH 225), and expected heterozygosity - from 0.86 (BM 1824, SPS 115, ETH 10) to 0.92 (BM 2113, INRA 023, TGLA 227). Analysis of fixation index data showed that 8 loci had negative index (BM 1824 (-0.22), BM 2113 (-0.26), INRA 023 (-0.26), SPS 115 (-0.18), TGLA 122 (-0.12), TGLA 126 (-0.10), ETH 10 (-0.28), ETH 225 (-0.04) and 1 locus (TGLA 227) had positive index (1.0). The results of the analysis of microsatellite loci showed that level of genetic diversity in the studied herd of Kalmyk cattle is high.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2024;19(1):12-18
pages 12-18 views
Ways to increase milk productivity of Red Gorbatov breed
Shekhovtsev G.S.

Conservation of cattle breed diversity is one of the urgent problems of animal husbandry. Of special interest is the study of the last remaining population of Red Gorbatov cattle, descended from Tyrolean cattle, which is represented by Tux-Z illertal breed today. The purpose of the research was to study the influence of bloodline of Red Gorbatov breed on dairy productivity of cows. The objectives of the study included analysis of the current state of gene pool population of Red Gorbatov cattle saturated with Angler and Red Danish breeds over the last years. Purebred Red Gorbatov cows and crossbred animals obtained by crossing with Angler and Red Danish breeds were compared according to the following indicators of milk productivity: average milk yield for all lactations, fat and protein content in milk, milk fat and protein yield. Average value, coefficients of variation and correlation were calculated. The results of the study showed some superiority of crossbred animals over purebred Red Gorbatov cattle in the value of milk yields: by 5.7 % in crossbreeds with Angler breed and 12.9 % in crossbreeds with Red Danish breed, however, the differences in the values of the trait were not statistically significant. Differences in content of fat and protein in milk were not significant and were in the range from 0.01 to 0.04 %. The revealed values of correlation coefficients showed a significant unrealized potential of milk productivity.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2024;19(1):19-29
pages 19-29 views
The influence of mycotoxins on quality indicators of milk in cows in a large livestock complex
Gnezdilova L.A., Fedotov S.V., Muradyan Z.Y., Rozinsky S.M.

The research was carried out in the dairy complexes of Lednevo breeding farm in the Yuryev- Polsky district, the Vladimirov region. The purpose of the study was to scientifically substantiate the influence of mycotoxins on quality indicators of milk in cows in a large livestock complex. At each of the complexes, 20 cows were selected. The milk samples were taken to determine the content of protein, fat, casein, albumin, globulins, lactose, total solids, dry skimmed milk residue using automatic milk composition analyzer (Combi Milkoscan, FossElectric, Denmark). Analysis of mycotoxin residues in milk was carried out using liquid chromatography mass spectrum. To determine hematological parameters and perform biochemical tests, BioSystemsA25 automatic analyzer (USA) was used. The results of automatic Foss analyzer showed a decrease in dry matter content in milk from cows that received feed with a higher concentration of mycotoxins (10.44 ± 0.22 versus 14.71 ± 0.45 %). Thus, mycotoxins in high concentrations affect amino acid metabolism. Threonine, an essential amino acid obtained from aspartate in bacteria and plants, is metabolized to form glycine and serine, which have a great influence on metabolic processes. Thus, feeding lactating cows with fodder containing mycotoxins reduced feed consumption, milk yield, and also had negative effect on hematological and biochemical blood parameters of experimental cows.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2024;19(1):30-38
pages 30-38 views
Therapeutic efficacy of antimastitis drugs in the treatment of subclinical and clinical forms of dairy cow mastitis
Shepeleva K.V., Petrov A.K., Rogov R.V., Kulikov E.V., Kryuchkov I.A.

Comparative effectiveness of veterinary antimastitis drugs in the treatment of subclinical and clinical mastitis of dairy cows was studied. During the experiment, two treatment regimens were used. Cows from the 1st and 3rd experimental groups were treated according to the traditional scheme for this farm - intracisternal administration of Mastiet Forte; for the treatment of cows from the 2nd and 4th experimental groups, Mamikur was administered intracisternally. The effectiveness of therapy was assessed by clinical signs, by the number of somatic cells in milk, response to Kenotest and hematological parameters. It was established that the use of Mamikur as a monotherapy for serous-catarrhal clinical and subclinical mastitis in cows is well tolerated and gives a positive effect when administered intracisternally in the volume of one dosing syringe three times with an interval of 12 hours.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2024;19(1):39-50
pages 39-50 views
Antimicrobial resistance of bovine mastitis pathogens
Firsov G.M., Ryadnov A.A., Ryadnova T.A., Morozova Z.C., Budtuev O.V.

Inflammation of mammary gland - mastitis - can be caused by various reasons, both physical and microbiological. Mastitis affects physical and technological quality of milk, growth of economic costs and increase in milk production cost, especially due to the use of antimicrobial drugs. The purpose of the research was to study antibacterial resistance of mastitis pathogens in cattle. The studies were carried out in the Oktyabrsky and Kamyshinsky districts, Volgograd region in 2019-2023. 1206 milk samples from Holstein- Friesian cows aged 4-7 years were examined using standard microbiological methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on Mueller - Hinton agar using a modified Kirby - Bauer disc diffusion method. Based on the results of microbiological studies, microbial growth of 984 cultures ( S. aureus , Str. agalactiae , Str. uberis , E. coli , Klebsiella spp. , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pasteurella multocida , Trueperella pyogenes and Mycoplasma spp. ) was identified . In the study, multiple resistance to the studied antimicrobial drugs was noted, for example, E. coli had resistance to all 9 drugs; Pseudomonas aeruginosa - to 8; Mycoplasma spp. - to 7; S. aureus , Str. agalactiae , Str. uberis , Klebsiella spp . and Pasteurella multocida - to 6; Trueperella pyogenes to 1 drug. Constant monitoring of resistance of bovine mastitis pathogens to antimicrobial agents contributes to a more effective selection of therapy for clinical mastitis.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2024;19(1):51-60
pages 51-60 views

Crop production

Application of nitrogen fertilizers to spring wheat on meadowchernozem soil in the Omsk Irtysh region
Voronkova N.A., Tsyganova N.A., Balabanova N.F., Volkova V.A., Pakhotina I.V.

The effectiveness of fractional application of nitrogen fertilizers in cultivation of spring common wheat was studied in the conditions of the Omsk Irtysh region on meadow-chernozem medium-sized medium-humus heavy loamy soil. The research object was spring common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. ‘Melodiya’. The purpose of the research was to establish the effectiveness of fractional application of nitrogen fertilizers depending on the level of labile phosphorus in meadow-chernozem soil on yield and grain quality of spring common wheat in the conditions of the Omsk Irtysh region. The field experiment had three factors (2×4×2): Factor A — phosphorus background: 1. No fertilizers; 2. Application of P30 a. i./ha; factor B — main application of ammonium nitrate in increasing doses: 0, N30, N45, N60; factor C — foliar feeding with ammonium nitrate and carbamide at a dose of N30: 1. Once in heading stage; 2. Twice in heading stage and milky ripeness. It was found that the most effective was main application of nitrogen-p hosphorus fertilizers in doses of N30–45P30; crop productivity in these variants increases by 40…48 % in comparison with the nonfertilized variants due to the gain in 1000-seed weight (r = 0.40…0.42), productive stooling (r = 0.83). The agronomic profitableness of one kg of a. i./ha applied fertilizers in these variants was 21.5 and 19.9 kg of grain with 7.5 and 6.1 kg increase in protein content, respectively. Late foliar sprayings, regardless of their number, did not increase crop productivity and quality of wheat grain. Thus, fractional application of nitrogen fertilizers in years with insufficient moisture levels (hydrothermal index 0.6–0.7) is not effective.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2024;19(1):61-75
pages 61-75 views

Genetics and plant breeding

Assessment of stability and plasticity of hulless spring oat varieties by yield and 1000 seed weight in the Northern Russia
Zobnina I.V., Korelina V.A., Batakova O.B.

Spring oats in extreme conditions of the Russian North is one of the main annual fodder crops. Therefore, assessment of the source material for adaptability and stability is the basis for creation of new competitive varieties. The purpose of the research was to identify the most plastic varieties of hulless spring oat with the greatest stability in grain yield and 1000 seed weight in the conditions of the Northern region. The experiments were carried out in the southern zone of the Arkhangelsk region in 2020–2022. Seven hulless spring oat varieties developed by Nemchinovka Federal Research Center were studied in the experimental field. Nemchinovsky 61 variety was used as a standard. To evaluate samples by productivity and 1000 seed weight, the parameters of ecological plasticity and stability were calculated: yield in contrasting years (Y1 + Y2)/2; index of ecological plasticity (IEP); stress resistance (Y2 — Y1); linear regression coefficient (bi); coefficient of variation (V); stability index (L’); measure of stability (S2d); swing yield (d); indicator of variety stability level (IVSL). According to the data obtained, the varieties were evaluated, and appropriate conclusions were made about the plasticity and stability of hulless oats in terms of grain yield and 1000 seed weight. The average yield of hulless oat varieties over the research years was 2.20 t/ha, 1000 seed weight was 31.57 g. In favorable 2022, grain yield was the highest (3.45…3.90 t/ha), the index of environmental conditions was positive (Ij = 5.49), in unfavorable 2020–2021, grain yield was 1.18…2.11 t/ha and Ij was negative –2.13, –3.36. Regarding 1000 seed weight (31.8…35.0 g), the most favorable was 2020, the index of environmental conditions was positive (Ij = 1.95). In unfavorable 2021–2022, 1000 seed weight was 27.7…36.3 g and Ij was negative –1.71, –0.24. The following cultivars were pliable and stable in grain yield: 52h2467 (bi =1.04, IEP = 1.91, L’ = 116.99, IVSL = 14.644), H 2895 (L’ = 102.25, IVSL = 11.188), H 2979 (L’ = 103.12, IVSL = 12.044); and in 1000 seed weight: H 2895 (IVSL = 1524.711; IEP = 1.145; V = 1.051; (L’ = 139.999). The variety H 2895 combined high characteristics both in 1000 seed weight and in yield.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2024;19(1):76-89
pages 76-89 views
New perspective hulled spring oat lines in Omsk agricultural research center
Nikolaev P.N., Yusova O.A., Vasyukevich S.V.

The economic, technological, and climatic prerequisites of recent 2 decades determine new relevant requirements for cultivated varieties of agricultural crops. For the stable formation of a high-quality harvest, new adaptive varieties are needed. The purpose of the research was to identify promising hulled oats lines in the competitive nursery of Omsk Agrarian Scientific Center by the main indicators of grain quality and productivity for further research. Omsk hulled lines of spring oats were studied in scientific long-term research (2019-2021). The test object was 8 hulled oat lines, the Orion variety was the standard. The data of the following grain quality indicators were presented: mass fraction of protein, starch and crude fat, 1000 seed weight. The adaptability and stability of these indicators were calculated according to Eberhart and Russell. Mutika 1178, Mutika 1180, Mutika 1195, Mutika 1196, Mutika 1200, Mutika 1202 and Mutika 1205 lines significantly exceeded the standard in protein content in grain (+0.9…2.6 % to st); Mutika 1147 exceeded the standard in starch content (+1.5…2.3 % to st); Mutika 1147, Mutika 1195, Mutika 1200, Mutika 1202, Mutika 1205 - in crude fat (+0.6…1.3 % to st); Mutika 1147 and Mutika 1178 - in 1000 seed weight (+0.9…3.4 g to st). For further research, the following promising lines are recommended: stable in protein mass fraction (Mutika 1180, Mutika 1195, Mutika 1200, Mutika 1202, Mutika 1205); stable in starch (Mutika 1196), stable in crude fat (Mutika 1147, Mutika 1178, Mutika 1180, Mutika 1195, Mutika 1196, Mutika 1200, Mutika 1202, Mutika 1205) and stable in 1000 seed weight (Mutika 1195, Mutika 1202, Mutika 1205).

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2024;19(1):90-100
pages 90-100 views
Evaluation of Md-ACS1 gene polymorphism in apple trees for isolation of the identified composition of gene pool and breeding for long-storage fruits
Ulianovskaya E.V., Chernutskaya E.A., Balapanov I.M., Stepanov I.V.

The apple tree (Malus × domestica Borkh.) is the most important perennial fruit crop widely cultivated and used in agricultural production around the world. The problem of extending shelf life and sale of fresh fruit crops is of great importance due to the year-round active use and demand among the population. To create commercially attractive, popular and valuable apple varieties of Russian breeding with genetically determined long-term keeping quality of fruits, the role of pre-breeding based on the study and mobilization of available biological resources including the use of DNA marking to identify the most valuable genotypes for the desired priority trait, is significant. The purpose of the study was to study allelic polymorphism of Md-A CS1 gene in 37 apple accessions to identify sources of long-term storage of fruits for further breeding use. The research was carried out in the Center for Collective Use ‘Research and Breeding Collection of Genetic Resources of Horticultural Crops’ using generally accepted programs and methods for variety study and selection of apple trees. The methods of DNA analysis were applied in the work. For DNA extraction, the CTAB method modified at North Caucasian Federal Scientific Center of Horticulture was used. According to DNA marking data, carriers of homozygous allelic combination (Md-ACS1–2/2) were identified among the studied apple accessions of Russian breeding: Persikovoe, Georgiy, Azimut, hybrid 17/1–6–47 (Champion × Modi), and foreign varieties: Smeralda, Fuji Mimo. The selected varieties and forms are promising in creating Russian genetic resources with improved commercial fruit traits including genetically determined increase in length of storage period. They can be used in breeding using DNA-marker selection for several target genes of quality, keeping quality and density of fruit pulp. 


RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2024;19(1):101-110
pages 101-110 views

Plant protection

Impact of fungicides on potato pathogen in the Tambov region of the Russian Federation
Lyashko M.U., Saquee F., Diakite S., Chukwunyere E., Gaisina E.M.

Fungicide application has been reported to effectively manage fungal disease that causes 10 to 80 % of the average annual estimated loss, including management costs to potatoes during the production cycle in Russia. The annual agricultural losses caused by these pathogens are highly significant. A field experiment was conducted for two consecutive years (2022 and 2023), using a potato varietal line and two fungicides (Zummer and Shirlan) to assess the efficiency of newly introduced and previously used fungicides on potato disease Phytophthora infestans (potato blight), Rhizoctonia solani (Black scurf), Streptomyces scabies (Common scab), and Fusarium spp. (Fusarium dry rot). The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. Generally, treatment 5 exhibited the highest pathogen severity population and lowest fresh tuber yield of potatoes. Treatments 2 and 4 (Zimmer and Shirlan at 0.4 L/ha) concentrations had the lowest pathogen severity population and highest fresh tuber yield of the crop studied in the experiment. Both treatments 2 and 4 had a statistically similar high tolerance to the disease pressure, contributing to an increase in fresh tuber yield of 10.25 t/ha. Treatment 5, which had the highest pathogen population, exhibited the lowest fresh tuber yield of 9.36 t/ha. This research demonstrated that the fungicides Zimmer and Shirlan significantly lowered the severity and interaction of all potato diseases studied. Therefore, the study confirmed that the application of Zimmer and Shirlan fungicides at four spraying intervals at a concentration rate of 0.4 L/ha within the developmental stages (budding, beginning of flowering, flowering, and end of flowering) effectively reduces disease development, damage caused by these potato diseases, and increases yield.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2024;19(1):111-121
pages 111-121 views
Adaptation of plant protection technology considering fungalbacterial associations
Platonov V.A., Chudinova E.M., Elansky S.N.

Plant infections are often caused by complexes of microorganisms that may include both fungal and bacterial species. In some cases, a symbiotic relationship between fungi and bacteria is observed, which makes a significant contribution to the development of pathogenesis. The work analyzes the phytopathogenic potential of bacteria associated with fungi. Fungal cultures that did not have visible (including microscopy) symptoms of bacterial damage were selected for study. Using PCR with primers for bacterial mitochondrial genes followed by sequencing of amplicons in such fungal cultures, the presence of bacteria was established. Analysis of sequencing data showed that among the bacteria associated with fungi there were species related to known phytopathogenic bacteria that cause diseases of crops. The results obtained show the need to adjust plant protection measures. Most chemical fungicides are ineffective against bacteria. Protection schemes should include biological, biorational and chemical agents that can simultaneously control the development of fungi and bacteria. Crop rotations should be designed to avoid alternating crops susceptible to the same bacteria. Another important element of plant protection is the removal or destruction of plant residues.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2024;19(1):122-127
pages 122-127 views
Biological effectiveness of insecticides in pear psylla control
Podgornaya M.E., Didenko N.A., Prah S.V., Vasilchenko A.V.

Psylla pyri L. is the pear dominant pest, which damage can reach 70…90 %. 5–7 generations of the insect can develop during one growing season in the south of Russia. Phytophage is difficult to control due to development of insecticide resistance and presence of different growth stages at the same time in summer. Therefore, the research aim was to identify the most effective insecticides with various modes of action that restrain the number and development of pear psylla nymphs. The research tasks were to clarify biological features of pear psylla development and to determine effectiveness of insecticides with various modes of action in controlling P. pyri L. population. Pear psylla development in Prikubansky zone of the Krasnodar region was studied and the results were presented. During the research years, the sum of effective temperatures necessary for: start of egg laying was 40 °C (at a threshold of 6 °C); beginning of larvae hatching was 121…122 °C; period from egg to imago — 300 °C. Pest development monitoring showed that the insect has 6 full generations in the growing season. Field experiments were conducted with ‘Leven’ pear variety in Prikubansky zone, central gardening subzone of the Krasnodar Territory on the basis of genetic collection of North Caucasian Federal Scientific Center of Horticulture, Viticulture, Winemaking in 2021–2022 to determine biological effectiveness of insecticides. The results revealed that chemicals based on juvenoids and chitin synthesis inhibitors were not inferior in effectiveness to chemical insecticides. The two-year studies showed that the highest effectiveness after a single application of the chemicals Akarb, WDG (250 g/kg fenoxycarb) and Dimilin, WDG (800 g/kg diflubenzuron) was on the 10th day and amounted to 83.3…91.7 %, which was higher than the effectiveness of the standard.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2024;19(1):128-138
pages 128-138 views
Diversity of soybean bacterial blight pathogen Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. glycinea in the Russian Federation
Tarakanov R.I., Evseev P.V., Troshin K.S., Ignatov A.N., Dzhalilov F.S.

One of the most harmful bacterial diseases of soybean is bacterial blight caused by bacterium Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. glycinea. The pathogen can reduce soybean yield (up to 40 %), oil content and seed germination. To manage the pathogen damage, protection measures should be comprehensive, the most cardinal of which is breeding for resistance. To obtain resistant varieties, it is necessary to understand the diversity of the pathogen in the area and to breed against the most common and harmful forms of the pathogen. In this regard, the aim of the study was to characterize Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. glycinea strains circulating in the Russian Federation as casual agents of bacterial blight of soybean. 12 strains of the soybean bacterial blight pathogen were isolated from soybean plant parts and seeds grown in different regions of the Russian Federation. The isolated strains were identical to the reference strain Psg CFBP 2214 in fluorescence, colony morphology on King B medium and LOPAT test results (+, –, –, –, –, +) and formed an amplicon in specific PCR analysis of cfl (coronafacate ligase) gene. The strains had different virulence to Kasatka soybean plants, and the width of symptomatic zone when leaves were artificially inoculated ranged from 3.23 mm (in strain G7) to 6.53 mm in strain G4. Comparison of the obtained gltA and ITS 16S-23S rRNA gene sequences showed a high (95.8…98.8 %) identity to the bacterial blight pathogen strains deposited to NCBI Genbank, and phylogenetic analysis showed a low intra-strain genetic polymorphism. Analysis of the race composition of the strains showed that the race 4 was predominant in the Russian Federation.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2024;19(1):139-154
pages 139-154 views

Protective afforestation

Anthropogenic impact on stability of forest crops development of silver birch Betula pendula Roth in the green zone of Astana
Kabanova S.A., Kochegarov I.S., Kabanov A.N., Danchenko M.A., Shakhmatov P.F., Bortsov V.A., Scott S.A.

Recreational load affects the quality of the environment, which is confirmed by the change of fluctuating asymmetry of silver birch leaves. The deviation level of the environmental quality is minimal when the quality is normal. However, when the environmental quality level is declining it leads to decrease in stability and state of biome, which is observed by the sign of the magnitude of changes as the integral indicator of developmental stability. The purpose of the research was to study fluctuating asymmetry of leaves of silver birch ( Betula pendula Roth) in the green zone of Astana. The objects of research were 19-year-old artificial plantings of silver birch, some of which underwent intercropping practice simultaneously on the same field 7 years after planting. The planting site was conventionally divided into high and low latitudes due to the vertical elevation change in a landscape. All the studied forest plantings to some degree exhibited a weakening state. The condition of the trees is gradually declining, which constitutes 66.9…71.2 points on replanted plots and 72.3…72.4 points - on non-replanted trial plots in 2022. Prior to the creation of a recreational zone in transplanted crops at a high latitude, an initial stage of deviation from the conventional norm was observed. After the forest crop improvements were implemented, fluctuating leaf asymmetry indicator reached its highest magnitude in 2022 in all the studied crops, except for transplanted crops at a low latitude, which had a 3rd-4th score for all the years of observation. So far, in these forest plantings, the quality of the environment has not reached a critical level, but they also display a strong anthropogenic impact, because of compression of topsoil due to the settling of unorganized paths. Therefore, it is necessary to take silvicultural and other measures to increase sustainability and improve condition and state of artificial forest plantings. It is imperative to carry out plants trimming and utilize soil amendments, organize a regulated road and footpath network, and strengthen control over travelers.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2024;19(1):155-164
pages 155-164 views

Veterinary science

The role of Wnt and Shh signaling systems in noggin-induced tumorigenesis
Mardaryev A.N., Mardaryev N.S., Mardaryeva N.V., Schiptsova N.V.

The cross-interaction between BMP, Wnt and Shh signalling pathways in developing epithelial skin tumours remains poorly understood. To study the role of Wnt and Shh signalling pathways in tumour development upon BMP inhibition, we utilized a transgenic mouse model, overexpressing BMP antagonist noggin in the skin epithelium and leading to the development of hair follicle-derived tumours shortly after birth. Comparative gene and protein expression analyses revealed up-regulation of Wnt and Shh signalling systems in the skin of transgenic mice at various stages of follicular tumour development. Furthermore, recombinant BMP-4 suppresses the expression of Shh in the culture of tumor cells, while pharmacological inhibitors of Wnt and Shh significantly slow down the formation and development of tumors in noggin-expressing transgenic mice. These results enhance our knowledge about the role of growth factors in carcinogenesis and may lead to finding new targets for specific therapies for oncological diseases.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2024;19(1):165-175
pages 165-175 views
Influence of bee products on intestinal microbiota formation in healthy birds and birds with candidiasis
Shaykhulov P.R., Mannapova R.T., Svistunov D.V.

Candidamycosis causes significant damage to the poultry industry. Mortality rate in young birds reaches 95…100 %. The aim of the study was to optimize formation and intestinal colonization resistance under the influence of biologically active bee products (BABP) and the features of recovery in birds infected with candidamycosis of digestive tract (CDT). Studies were carried out on Japanese meat 10-day-old to 90-day-old quails. All the studied beekeeping products — extracts of wax moth, drone homogenate and propolis — contribute to the stabilization of the hidden genetically laid down mechanisms of natural intestinal microbiocenosis in healthy quails bred in captivity, without causing damage to the body, restoring the balance of normoflora and opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms to physiological values. However, a constant complex of stressors encountered during bird breeding, associated with the conditions of keeping, feeding, veterinary and zootechnical measures, lead to a significant activation of Candida albicans in large intestine, with the subsequent development of candidiasis of digestive tract, deep dysbacterioses, characterized by increased reproduction and increase in the content of opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms: Candida albicans — by 8.34 times, Staphylococcus aureus — by 4.37 times, Pseudomonas spp. — by 3.29 times; inhibition of reproduction and decrease in the level of normoflora: Lactobacillus spp. — by 6.0 times, Bifidobacterium spp. — by 7.25 times. The use of extracts of wax moth, drone homogenate and propolis in candidamycosis-i nfected birds contributed to restoration of quail intestinal microbiocenosis, which was manifested by: a) decrease in the level of opportunistic pathogenic Candida albicans — by 3.3; 4.61 and 3.97 times; Staphylococcus aureus — by 4.0; 7.78 and 4.5 times; Pseudomonas spp. — by 3.05; 5.32 and 3.96 times; b) activation and increase of normoflora: Lactobacillus spp. — by 6.38; 10.0 and 8.84 times; Bifidobacterium spp. — by 5.36; 8.42 and 7.5 times.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2024;19(1):176-191
pages 176-191 views

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