Vol 18, No 1 (2023)

Morphology and biochemistry of plants

Variability of morphological characteristics of red forms of amaranth with a high content of biologically active substances under conditions of the Moscow region

Platonova S.Y., Torres Mino C.J., Gins E.M., Gins M.S., Romanova E.V.


The study of variability of morphological features in red-colored varieties of amaranth and their correlations at different stages in the conditions of the Moscow region makes it possible to identify features that affect productivity, amount of amaranthine and other biologically active substances. After analyzing vegetative characteristics, the varietal features of amaranth plants were proved to have a smaller impact on ‘root length’, ‘plant height’ and ‘number of leaves’ characteristics than the cultivation conditions, especially at the initial stages (ISB (Influence share of the weather conditions) from 22 to 58 %). It follows from the phenotypic variability analysis that the genotypic component values varied significantly only at the last stages (Cvg > 35 %). The maximum values of phenotypic variability were marked in all varieties at the stage of active growth considering the ‘root length’ (Cve = 32…47 %) and the ‘number of leaves’ (Cve = 48…85 %). The generative characteristics seemed to be significantly influenced by the varietal factor (ISA (Influence share of varietal characteristics) = 40…88 %) starting from the third stage. The genotypic component of all varieties was high considering the inflorescence weight (Cvg = 75…86 %). In signs of general productivity, it was studied that the leaves (93…112 g/plant) contributed the most for amaranth forms, which mass in all varieties largely depended on weather conditions (ISB > 55 %). The interrelation of the leaves productivity was noted high with all the vegetative characteristics on phase III-V (r = 0.71…0.92) and with ‘inflorescence mass’ on phase V-VI.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(1):9-19
pages 9-19 views

Crop production

Influence of spent mushroom compost on crop productivity

Zubkova T.V., Vinogradov D.V.


As development of mushroom industry in Russia is growing, and the amount of spent mushroom composts is increasing, they are actively used as organomineral fertilizers for agricultural crops. Therefore, from the rather large problem of storing waste composts, these fertilizers began to be in great demand in the agricultural industry. Organic fertilizers are characterized by a high percentage of nutrients. They are able to improve physical properties of soil by increasing aggregative stability and reducing soil density. Organic fertilizers improve biological and biochemical properties of soil, and positively affect the development of soil microbial community. In the experiments, the content of nutrients in fresh compost and compost after one year of storage averaged: ash content - 8.0 and 74.1 %; organic matter - 66.3 and 25.9 %; NPK (%) - 0.50, 0.63, 0.44 and 0.45, 0.51, 0.39, respectively, under a favorable soil acidity (pH 8.0-7.3). In studies carried out on dark grey forest soils of the Ryazan region, the maximum productivity of agricultural crops was noted in variants with application of half-ripened compost: the yield of spring wheat was 2.82 t/ha (+ 0.23 t/ha compared to the control); spring barley - 3.21 t/ha (+0.17); spring rapeseed - 1.77 t/ha (+0.24); potato cv. ‘Vympel’ - 27.91 (+ 4.41); potato cv. ‘Kolobok’ - 11.21 t/ha (+1.63); pea - 2.10 t/ha (+0.21). The high efficiency of spent mushroom composts as fertilizers for increasing yields of spring barley and wheat, spring rapeseed, potatoes and peas was confirmed.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(1):20-30
pages 20-30 views

Effect of mineral fertilizers, forecrops and soil-climatic conditions on millet productivity in steppe zone of the Southern Urals

Mitrofanov D.V.


The research was carried out on southern chernozems in arid conditions of the Orenburg Urals in 2002-2021. The influence of agrometeorological conditions of the growing season, spring reserves of soil moisture and nutrients, cellulolytic activity of microorganisms, content of organic matter, humus and acidity in the soil after applying mineral fertilizers on increasing productivity of millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) cv. ‘Orenburg 9’ were studied. The soil and millet crops were selected as the object of research. The work uses field, thermastatic-weight, ionometric, Machigin, application-weight, Tyurin, dispersion and statistical methods of research. Field experiments were performed in four-field, two-field crop rotations and continuous cropping according to the following scheme: 1) Sowing after durum wheat in the aftereffect of black fallow (control); 2) Sowing after common wheat in the aftereffect of black fallow; 3) Sowing after common wheat in the aftereffect of soil-protective fallow; 4) Sowing after common wheat in the aftereffect of sideral fallow; 5) Sowing after durum wheat; 6) Millet continuous cropping. It was revealed that the studied factors in the experiment increased millet productivity under two-field crop rotation with durum wheat after fertilizers application. Compared to the control, the maximum increase of grain yield was after using ammophos complex fertilizer (N40P40) - by 0.45 tons; feed units - 0.44; energy units - 0.26 and feed protein units - 0.24 t/ha. The best effect on increasing productivity was provided by: July precipitation - 28.05 %, spring reserves of productive moisture in 0-30 cm soil layer -- 25.96 %; in 0-100 cm - 20.86 %, nitrate content - 71.80 %, phosphorus - 38.05 %, potassium - 33.07 %, microbial activity (cellulose decomposition) - 62.32 % (p < 0.05) compared to the control. The highest organic matter content (17.6 %) and humus (3.5 %) in soil and neutral acidity (pH = 7.0) create favorable conditions for growing millet after durum wheat. As a result of research on other crops, it was found that these factors do not affect yield increase. Positive results of the influence of factors can be useful in increasing millet productivity.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(1):31-44
pages 31-44 views

Agricultural technologies and land reclamation

Water-physical properties of chestnut soils depending on different tillage practices and irrigation regimes

Dubenok N.N., Novikov A.E., Poddubsky A.A., Chamurliev G.O., Shumakova K.B., Zbukarev R.V.


The aim of the research was to study water-physical properties of chestnut soils under different tillage practices when cultivating corn (Povolzhsky 89 MV hybrid) under irrigated conditions in the Lower Volga region. Therefore, the following characteristics of the soil were studied - soil density, soil moisture, field capacity, maximal hygroscopic moisture, wilting point and porosity. The results revealed that after chisel loosening, a qualitative improvement of soil water-physical properties was observed in comparison with the control variant - moldboard plowing. To describe the dynamics of changes in soil density by layers and tillage variants, a regression of the 2nd order was proposed, and coefficients of the equation were calculated. In order to maintain the specified irrigation regime during the observation periods, 7 to 9 vegetative irrigations with application rate from 2250 to 2750 m3·ha-1 were carried out in the variants with moldboard plowing, 7 to 8 irrigations with application rate from 2200 to 2600 m3·ha-1 in the variants with chisel loosening, and 6 to 7 irrigations with application rates from 2100 to 2500 m3·ha-1 in the variants with chisel moldboard plowing. The yield of corn in the variant with chisel moldboard plowing averaged 8.75 t·ha-1 during the research period, which is 18 % higher than in the control variant. Moreover, the cost of irrigation water for producing one ton of grain decreased by almost 20 %, and the coefficient of water consumption decreased by 17 %.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(1):45-58
pages 45-58 views

Morphology and ontogenesis of animals

Morphological criteria for Pipistrellus pygmaeus kidney indicators

Karpenko E.N., Kharlan A.L., Zaitseva E.V.


At present, there is scientific and practical interest in the study of morphological and physiological features, criteria and tolerance of organs involved in protein metabolism in representatives of the order Chiroptera. Macro- and micrometric indicators of kidneys in soprano pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pygmaeus), as a result of adaptive transformations of the body to habitat conditions in the Bryansk region were studied. The study was conducted in the period from 2011 to 2022, 40 captures were carried out with a total of 481 individuals, of which 100 were selected for further study. On histological preparations of kidneys of soprano pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pygmaeus), morphometry of nephrons, podocyte parameters, nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, areas of nucleolar organizers and their total area were studied. It was established that biological adaptation of the bats (Chiroptera), on the example of soprano pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pygmaeus), is manifested in development of biological properties of the species. The functional and protein-synthetic activity of cells, kidneys (cell volume, nucleus, cytoplasm and nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio), the number and increase in the total area of the argentophilic region of nucleolar organizers were determined by organ topography, gender and influence of anthropogenic negative environmental effects. The data obtained showed gender differences in female bats (Chiroptera) of Pipistrellus pygmaeus species living in an urban environment, having a large number in the colony, against the background of a combined anthropogenic load, under the influence of hydrocarbons, sulfur and nitrogen dioxides and suspended solids. It was found that phenotypic adaptation as an adaptation to flight triggers the main processes of biochemical cycles, the processes of endogenous intoxication and detoxification function in kidneys. In turn, it increases metabolism, which contributes to increase in the number of renal glomeruli and decrease in the cavity of renal glomerular capsule. New data characterizing nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, number and total area of regions of nucleolar organizers in podocytes of glomeruli in kidneys of soprano pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pygmaeus), which may be a manifestation of genetic adaptation to environmental conditions, were obtained.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(1):59-70
pages 59-70 views

Animal breeding

Biotechnologies for accelerated reproduction of Kalmyk cattle

Babenkov V.Y., Khakhlinov A.I., Sangadzhiev R.D., Makarova E.Y., Mergulchiev O.S.


In Russia, the number of beef cattle until recently was concentrated mainly in Kalmykia and adjacent regions. However, the lack of purposeful breeding has led to the fact that the purebred livestock of Kalmyk meat breed has significantly decreased and lost its unique qualities. Introduction of embryo transfer biotechnology can solve the problem of restoring breed qualities under the condition of accelerated reproduction of genotyped livestock. The aim of the research was to study Kalmyk breed response to polyovulation considering further increase in transferrable embryo productivity - the main indicator specific to each breed. As the formation of the breed took place in pasture conditions with a pronounced seasonal sexual cycle, there were doubts about the possibility of using embryo transfer technology in any season. The experiments were carried out on Kalmyk cows at Kalmytskoye farm in 2010 and at the Regional Research and Production Center for Reproduction of Farm Animals, Kalmyk State University, in 2022. The results of the study showed that it was better to synchronize sexual hunting using prostaglandins after 3-4 months after calving (May-October). According to the results of immunogenetic testing, 10 breeding cows and 2 breeding bulls were selected as donors. In September-October, in order to test the embryo transfer method in nomadic animal husbandry, the first work was carried out to stimulate poliovulation and obtain embryos from 3 donor cows. A total of 23 embryos and eggs were obtained, 10 of which were suitable for transplantation. Transferrable embryos were frozen on a ZEM-4 software freezer after equilibration in 1.5 M ethylene glycol cryoprotector solution.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(1):71-79
pages 71-79 views

State of Vyatka horse population in regions of Russia

Bass S.P., Belousova N.F., Azimova G.V., Gulyaeva A.N.


The current state of Vyatka horse breed gene pool was studied in the research. It was revealed that the main array of the breeding stock is concentrated in three populations of three regions - the Udmurt Republic, the Kirov region, the Central Federal District. The purpose of the research was to assess the state of gene pool of Vyatka breed in modern conditions. Population of breeding stock horses both in agricultural enterprises and on private farms was analyzed in the territory of three regions of the Russian Federation: the Udmurt Republic, the Kirov Region, the Central Federal District. According to the genetic characteristics, horses in each population were divided into groups based on the relation degree: group 1 - outbred, group 2 - with distant Fx inbreeding (0.2…1.55 %), group 3 - with moderate Fx inbreeding (1.56…12.5 %), group 4 - with close Fx inbreeding (12.6…25 %). The coefficient of inbreeding was estimated according to the Wright-Kislovsky formula. The most typical horses with an inherent conformation were outbred horses from the population of the Central Federal District. Monitoring the quantitative composition of the breed showed that the number of mares increased from 73 to 287 heads over the period from 1995 to 2021. However, a sharp decrease in the number of mares (222 heads) was recorded at the beginning of 2022. This tendency creates certain difficulties in the selection process. The largest number of mares is concentrated in the Central Federal District - 83 heads nowadays. At the present stage of work with Vyatka breed the analysis of genetic diversity showed that 43.3 % of the representatives were outbred, it was based on the study of the increase in homozygosity of individuals in a limited gene pool. Representatives of the Vyatka breed were obtained in equal proportions by remote and moderate inbreeding - 28.1 and 27 %, respectively. The most typical with the correct conformation were outbred horses from the population of the Central Federal District.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(1):80-91
pages 80-91 views

Morphometric and chemical parameters of hen carcasses of ‘Smena 9’ cross raised under different conditions

Kondrashkina K.M., Nikitchenko D.V., Nikitchenko V.E.


Changes in live weight, morphology of carcasses, their morphometric parameters, chemical composition of muscles during cage rising (group 1) and ground-grazing raising (group 2) were studied in hens (‘Smena 9’ cross) at the age of 1, 35, 42, 49 and 56 days. Generally accepted research methods were used. The hens were raised under the same conditions. The experiments revealed that chickens had a high growth rate at an early age. At 56-day age, live weight of hen from group 1 was 3438 g, which was 2.69 % less than in group 2, and carcass weight was 2.89 % less (P < 0.05). In carcasses of broilers from group 2, weight of muscle tissue was 3.14 % more (P > 0.05), however, fat and bones were less by 0.22 and 0.09 %, respectively. Compared to 1-day-old chickens, 56-day-old broilers had increased relative weight: muscle tissue in group 1 and group 2 - by 13.04 and 13.27 %, respectively; fat - by 4.02 and 3.80 %, respectively; while relative bone weight decreased by 16.25 and 16.34 % in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Ground-grazing raising of chickens is not inferior in meat productivity to cage rising. At the same time, veterinary and sanitary indicators differ in the quality of meat.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(1):92-104
pages 92-104 views

Genetics and selection of animals

Structure of genomic DNA in chicken populations revealed by multilocus DNA probe

Terletskiy V.P., Tyshchenko V.I.


Molecular genetic technologies are taking an increasing place in breeding work to improve existing breeds and populations of chickens, as well as in programs to preserve a valuable gene pool. Small local breeds are a source of valuable genes that can be used in breeding. The aim of this work was to obtain new knowledge about the structure of genomic DNA of six chicken populations using multilocus analysis with a labeled molecular probe (GTG)5. Multilocus analysis using labeled DNA probes provides working simultaneously with a large number of genetic loci and calculating population genetic parameters both within populations and between them. The data on use of the multilocus probe (GTG)5 in molecular hybridization reaction in six breeds and populations of chickens were analyzed. The results revealed a large genetic distance between Black-and-White Australorp and the Bald-necked chickens (D = 0.155). Bald-necked chickens are bred in isolation from other breeds to maintain the unique trait of ‘naked necks’. According to the criterion of average heterozygosity, the population of Bald-necked chickens surpassed the Yurlov Crowers and Black-and-White Australorps. Obviously, this is due to the intensive breeding work carried out in the last two populations, which reduces genetic diversity. Marker DNA fragments specific for individual breeds were identified. The effectiveness of multilocus analysis as a tool for identifying the features of genome organization in chicken breeds and populations was confirmed.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(1):105-115
pages 105-115 views

Veterinary science

Effect of L-carnitine administered via subcutaneous injection on hematological parameters of laboratory animals

Sabirzyanova L.I., Konovalova G.V., Tokar V.V.


To date, there is no registered injectable dosage form of levocarnitine for veterinary use on the territory of the Russian Federation. Based on the above, the purpose of our work was to conduct preclinical studies of L-carnitine of subchronic toxicity for veterinary use in laboratory animals. Experiments to test the toxicity were performed on outbred rats in October 2021 at the vivarium of St. Petersburg State University of Veterinary Medicine. The study involved females weighing 190…210 grams, purchased from RAPPOLOVO Laboratory Animal Nursery. To study subchronic toxicity via subcutaneous injection, L-carnitine was administered in 2 dose levels. The doses were determined based on the results of the acute toxicity experiment: 1/5 and 1/10 of the maximum tolerated dose. The first experimental group (n=10) received the drug subcutaneously at a dose of 0.08 mg/kg (1/5 of 2000 mg/kg). The second experimental group (n = 10) received the drug subcutaneously at a dose of 0.04 mg/kg (1/10 of 2000 mg/kg). The control group (n = 10) received sodium chloride 0.09 % subcutaneously at a dose of 1/5 of 2000 mg/kg. The drug was administered subcutaneously daily for 42 days. Killing and blood sampling from the second half of the animals was carried out after assessing the recovery period (10 days after drug cancellation). As a result of studies of subchronic toxicity of subcutaneously administered L-carnitine for veterinary use in laboratory animals, it was found that the dosage of 1/5 of the maximum tolerated, and the dosage of 1/10 of the maximum tolerated, do not cause external signs of toxicosis and death of rats. No significant changes in the hematological parameters of blood of animals from the experimental and control groups were found.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(1):116-123
pages 116-123 views

Analysis of pathogenetic manifestation of decompensated intestinal dysbacteriosis in cats

Kulikov E.V., Babichev N.V., Telezhenkova A.I., Bugrov N.S., Rudenko P.A.


Despite the creation of more and more new generations of antibacterial agents, the correction of intestinal dysbiosis in animals currently remains one of the most complex and urgent problems in clinical veterinary medicine. The article presents an analysis of the pathogenetic manifestation (microbial background, hematological analytes) in decompensated intestinal dysbacteriosis in domestic cats in the dynamics of its correction. The aim of the study was to study the comparative effectiveness of various pharmacotherapy regimens for decompensated intestinal dysbacteriosis in cats. The data shows that when correcting decompensated intestinal dysbacteriosis in domestic cats, the most rational treatment regimen is the complex use of Lactobifadol probiotic (contains at least 1.0 × 106 CFU/g of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus LG1-DEP-VGIKI and 8.0 × 107 CFU/g of bifidobacteria Bifidobacterium adolescentis B-1-DEP-VGNKI), Vetelact prebiotic (contains lactulose - not less than 50 %), Azoksivet immunomodulator (contains 1.5 mg of azoximer bromide in 1 ml), as well as infusion therapy (intravenous drip injection of 10 ml/kg of 0.9 % sodium chloride solution; 10 ml/kg of 5 % glucose solution; 5 ml/kg of rheosorbelact and 2.5 ml/kg of refortan). This was confirmed by the results of pathogenetic picture (analysis of the microbial background and individual hematological analytes), in the dynamics of pharmacotherapy, namely before the start of correction, as well as on days 7 and 14. The improvement of diagnostic approaches and methods for correcting the most severe degree of intestinal dysbacteriosis (the stage of decompensation) creates prerequisites for the future study of dysbiotic disorders of the intestinal tract in other animal species, considering the severity of its manifestation.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(1):124-134
pages 124-134 views

Treatment for cholangiohepatitis in cats

Rudenko A.A., Karamyan A.S., Usenko D.S., Krotova E.A., Rogov R.V., Prozorovskiy I.E.


Acute bacterial cholangiohepatitis of cats is a common disease associated with the inflammation of bile ducts and liver parenchyma, characterized by development of a pronounced hepatodepressive syndrome (hypoalbuminemia), cytolysis (increase in serum activity of alanine and asparagine transaminase), cholestasis (increase in serum concentration of bilirubin, cholesterol, activity of alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase), intoxication, dehydration, mesenchymal-inflammatory and pain syndromes. The aim of the research was to study the effectiveness of treatment for acute bacterial cholangiohepatitis in cats with average severity of the pathology course. According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, the study included a cohort of cats (n = 12) with acute bacterial cholangiohepatitis. Clinical, hematological, ultrasonographic, statistical methods of investigation were used in this work. For sick cats with medium severity form of cholangiohepatitis, when administered as a complex therapy the combination of marbofloxacin, metronidazole, ursodeoxycholic acid, cyancobolamine, tocopherol acetate, infusion therapy also had a good therapeutic effect, which was accompanied by improved clinical and laboratory performance. In the blood of cats with cholangiohepatitis, in the background of intensive therapy, there was a significant decrease in white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and in serum, there was an increase in albumin concentration, reduction of creatinine, aminotransferase activity, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, lipase.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2023;18(1):135-144
pages 135-144 views

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