Vol 17, No 2 (2022)

Crop production

Rooting green cuttings of Altai seabuckthorn cultivars in industrial-scale experiment

Zubarev Y.A., Gunin A.V., Vorobjeva A.V.


Green cutting propagation technologies of seabuckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.) are well developed and highly effective under optimal parameters of implementation. Differences in root development in most cases are connected with varietal specificity. In conditions of uncovered greenhouses, weather particularities can influence significantly on development of cuttings. Hence, the aim of investigation was to study the cultivar difference in root development of seabuckthorn green cuttings in a long-term industrial-scale experiment in conditions of uncovered greenhouse facilities. The experiments were carried out in forest-steppe area of Altai krai in 2018-2021. Seventeen seabuckthorn cultivars developed by Federal Altai Scientific Center of Agrobiotechnologies were taken as research objects. Significant varietal specificity of rooting ability of green cuttings has been established. The experiments showed that season particularities just slightly affect this parameter, indicating significant homeostasis of seabuckthorn cultivars in this regard. Altaiskaya, Ognivo, Gnom, Ethna, Elizaveta and Athena varieties showed the highest level of rhizogenesis with everage rooting percentage from 91.2 to 95.5 %. Group of low rooted cultivars included Azhurnaya, Aurelia, Zlata, Sudarushka and Avgustina with rooting percentage from 70.5 to 79.7 %. Other cultivars showed intermediate figures. High correlation level (0.59±0.21) was shown between total root quality and rhizogenesis ability. Cultivars which demonstrated high rooting percentage also formed high level of first grade seedlings. In this regard, the best cultivars were Altaiskaya, Gnom and Ognivo, which formed 79.1, 82.1 and 83.8 % of first-grade seedlings, respectively. Low rooting ability was observed in cultivars Avgustina, Sudarushka and Zlata, which provided only 55.4…64.4 % of first-grade planting material. The variation coefficient of seabuckthorn standard seedlings was low and did not exceed 9.7 % for Avgustina cultivar. The variation of seedlings quality was at a higher level - u p to 27.3 % for cv. Sudarushka, however, for the rest of the cultivars it was low or medium and ranged from 2.7 to 18.7 %. According to the results of cluster analysis, the seabuckthorn cultivars were divided into three separate groups - slow-, medium- and fast-to-root genotypes.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(2):131-145
pages 131-145 views

Analysis, modelling and forecasting of crop yields using artificial neural networks

Bischokov R.M.


The article gives information about the attempt made to select configurations, train and test artificial neural networks for predicting yields of grain crops considering of climate changes. Peculiarities of agricultural production require constant improvement of methods for analyzing crop yields, time series, and longterm climatic characteristics. Preliminary statistical evaluation of the considered time series made it possible to identify certain patterns. Time series were divided into four intervals: for building a network, its training, testing and control. During the construction of artificial neural networks, three models were used: MLP - multilayer perceptron, RBF - r adial basis functions and GRNN - g eneralized regression neural network. Based on the results of the construction, the best model was chosen. The sum of active air temperatures and the sum of precipitation for the growing season was used for artificial neural networks at the input, and the crop yield was used at the output. The use of sets of neural systems, generated automatically, contributed to the effective forecasting of crop yields based on the analysis of climate data. As a result, according to the selected model, a yield forecast was made for the coming years considering climatic characteristics.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(2):146-157
pages 146-157 views

Effects of various pre-sowing treatments on invitro seed germination of Ceratoniasiliqua L.

Duksi F.


The organic dormancy of Ceratonia seeds is associated with their water resistance, which means that Carob suffers from difficulty in natural regeneration. Before planting Carob seeds must be treated in order to disturb mechanical dormancy. The main reasons for the decline in genus Ceratonia L. are anthropogenic impact on natural ecosystems, as well as the uses of Ceratonia for many goals. This problem is aggravated by the fact that seedlings of Ceratonia in nature are very rare because of organic dormancy, and the distribution of carob occurs mainly with the help of seeds. The aim of this work was to study the methods of pre-sowing treatment of dormant Carob seeds. This study was conducted on a wild Carob genotype grown in Syria. Four different pre-sowing treatments were the following: soaking in boiling distilled water (70 °С) for 10 min; soaking in boiling distilled water (70 °С) for 10 min + soaking in distilled water for 24 h; acid scarification with sulphuric acid (H2SO4); acid scarification with sulphuric acid (H2SO4) + soaking in distilled water for 24 h. We applied and examined for their effectiveness stimulation of Carob seed germination. The results showed that seeds treated with sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and then soaked in distilled water for 24 h was the most effective method increasing the germination percentage by 98 % compared to untreated seeds 5 %.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(2):158-165
pages 158-165 views

Agricultural technologies and land reclamation

Comprehensive assessment of Krascheninnikoviaceratoides L. development and its productive potential in reclaimed pastures of arid zone

Rybashlykova L.P.


Improper use of pasture lands has become one of the factors resulted in destruction of natural vegetation. In order to stop desertification, forest reclamation works were carried out in the Caspian region in the mid-20th century, and significant areas of Krascheninnikovia ceratoides (L.) plantings were created. The Pamirian winterfat is a wide distributed plant. It has a well-developed root system, providing sufficient water in climatic conditions of the arid zone. The article provides a systematic assessment of the long-term impact of afforestation and the development of a subshrub layer in various humidity conditions over the growing season during the functioning of pasture ecosystems in reclaimed Molodezhny-teresken territory. The main taxation indicators used to assess the development of Krascheninnikovia ceratoides were determined: height, crown diameter, plant standing density. The research was based on field taxational and morphological measurements of the subshrub and calculations of the complex indicator D. The study revealed that the generalized analysis of the biometric parameters of Pamirian winterfat according to criterion D was an objective tool for assessing its development in the prevailing climatic factors of a certain year. A direct correlation was established between the amount of precipitation in autumn period of research years and the values of the integral indicator D (r = 0.97) with its higher value in 2012 (D = 0.905). There is a high level of direct correlation between the values of the integral indicator D and the yield of feed mass (r = 0.90). Krascheninnikovia ceratoides reclamation and forage plantations have stability, durability, high price-forming potential and are the best way to improve and restore pastures in arid and semi-arid zones.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(2):166-179
pages 166-179 views

Landscaping of settlements

Assessment of introduction studies on far eastern Primula species in the polar-alpine botanical garden-institute

Trostenyuk N.N., Sviatkovskaya E.A., Saltan N.V.


Species of Primula genus are indispensable introducents for the Kola North, characterized by compact bushes, bright colors, tolerance to urban environments and predominantly early flowering. The Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden-Institute has been studying species of Primula genus since 1934. The results of introduction studies (from 1948 to present) of 6 Far Eastern species of Primula genus: P. borealis Duby, P. farinosa L., P. jesoana Miq., P. nutans Georgi, P. patens (Turcz.) E. Busch, P. saxatilis Kom. were analyzed in the article. The initial material was obtained by seed exchange with botanical gardens in Russia, the CIS and foreign countries. Phenological observations were carried out according to generally accepted methods, on the basis of which the phenological spectrum of seasonal development of plants were constructed, and survival points (SP) were assessed. The introduction coefficient (IC) was calculated, which reflected the introduction value of the considered group of plants. The method of ecological-geographical analysis was used to compile the introduction forecast. Among the studied species, Primula nutans (SP=11) obtained from the seeds of cultivated plants from Scandinavian countries and P. jesoana (SP=9) were most adapted to the conditions of the Kola Arctic. Two species ( P. borealis, P. patens (SP = 4)) were poorly adapted to the conditions of the region, P. farinosa (SP = 1.0) and P. saxatilis (SP = 1.5) were not tested enough due to a short study period. The study showed that plants living from the tundra to the steppe zone ( P. nutans - I C = 1.57) and, in some cases, plants of the taiga zone reaching the subalpine belt in the mountains ( Primula jesoana - I C= 1.28) were adapted to local conditions. The plants of the tundra zone and the alpine zone in the mountains ( P. borealis - IC = 0.57) were less adapted.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(2):180-192
pages 180-192 views

Animal breeding

Features of the functional state of the organism of sheep under stress

Yuldashbaev Y.A., Vatnikov Y.A., Rudenko P.A., Rudenko A.A.


The stresses that arise during routine animal husbandry procedures, such as milking, shearing, weighing, loading and hoof care, are an actual problem in animal husbandry. The components of economic damage under stress are a decrease in overall resistance and productivity, deterioration in product quality, an increase in labor costs and funds per unit of production, an increase in animal morbidity and mortality. The studies were carried out on the basis of ‘Belozernoe’ farm in the Salsky district, the Rostov region. A complex of clinical and laboratory studies was performed on 18 sheep (10 Romanov and 8 Tsigay breeds) aged 2 to 3 years, before and after a planned routine shearing. Stress in sheep caused by planned shearing was clinically manifested by general depression, in some cases, subfebrile fever, moderate tachypnea and tachycardia. It was shown that stress was accompanied by anemia, the development of erythropenia and leukopenia. Immunocompetent cells in the blood of experimental animals during stress development were analyzed. Severe lymphocytopenia was found to occur after a haircut. In addition, in the blood of experimental animals under stress, a tendency to a decrease in T-total cells was noted, which was accompanied by an increase in 0-cells, which was significant in sheep of the Tsigay breed (p<0.05). When analyzing the main immunoregulatory T cells in sheep under stress, a significant increase in T-suppressors was revealed with a relatively stable level of T-helpers in the blood studied. Thus, a significant (p<0.05) increase in the level of T-suppressors in sheep of Romanov and Tsigay breeds was recorded; it was by 1.15 and 1.19 times higher compared with the initial data. It should be noted that we did not find any significant differences between animals of Romanov and Tsigay breeds in stress development after shearing. The obtained data should be taken into account in the further search for methods of stress correction in sheep.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(2):193-202
pages 193-202 views

Veterinary science

Trace element status of highly productive cows in different physiological conditions under increased technogenic load

Drozhzhin O.S., Shipilov V.V.


Microelements play a vital role in the maintenance and intensification of metabolic and regulatory processes in the body of animals. For a more complete study of provision of body of highly productive animals with microelements and diagnosis of metabolic disorders, especially under anthropogenic load, it is necessary to conduct biochemical blood tests. The article presents the results of studies on the content of trace elements (iron, copper, zinc, manganese) in the whole blood of cows from two farms in the Voronezh region, one of which (farm 2) is located in an area with increased technogenic load. In whole blood, the content of iron, copper, zinc, and manganese was determined by atomic absorption using a Shimadzu AA-6300 spectrophotometer. Samples were prepared by wet ashing at elevated pressure in a MARS-5 microwave system. Blood samples were taken 2 weeks before calving, one week and one month after calving. A reduced level of copper and zinc was found in animals from both farms throughout the entire study period. The dependence of the content of microelements on the physiological state of animals (before and after calving) was not revealed. It was shown that the content of iron in the blood of highly productive cows from farm 2 was lower throughout the study, and manganese - a week and a month after calving. The amount of manganese in blood of farm 2 animals was less than the lower limit of the physiological norm, while in farm 1 animals its concentration was within the reference normal range.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(2):203-209
pages 203-209 views

Use of recombinant interleukin-2 in traumatic disease in veterinary medicine

Gizinger O.A.


Тhe article presents analysis of current information on the possibility of using recombinant interleukin-2 in traumatic disease in veterinary medicine. The analysis included publications from the following databases - P ubMed, MedLine, BIOSIS, ToxiNet, CANCERLIT, CINAHL, CISCOM, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and NAPRALERT, using 10 keywords and their combinations. It was shown that in trauma of any genesis, an immunodeficiency state occurs associated with an imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokines. The use of recombinant interleukin-2 restores synthesis of endogenous interleukin-2, provides adequate targeted drug correction of immune dysfunctions, increasing the clinical and immunological effectiveness of therapeutic measures.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(2):210-220
pages 210-220 views

The effectiveness of the use of Aminoseleferon-B with immunodeficiency in highly productive cows under conditions of technogenic environmental load

Shaposhnikov I.T., Kotsarev V.N., Skorikov V.N.


Highly productive animals, which are characterized by a more intense metabolism and regulation of the neurohumoral system, are more sensitive to a pool of adverse environmental conditions and can often be accompanied by metabolic disorders, a decrease in the immunobiological status of the macroorganism, reproductive function disorders and the development of pathological processes of various etiology and localization. The studies were carried out in the conditions of a large dairy complex in the Voronezh region located 25 km from a chemical plant for the production of mineral fertilizers: ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitric acid. Its total emissions to the environment are 5316.5 tons per year, including 4480.3 tons of gases. Studies have been carried out to study the effectiveness of the use of Аminoseleferon-B to correct the immune status of highly productive cows in an immunodeficient state, under conditions of technogenic environmental stress. It was established that Аminoseleferon-B contributed to the activation of humoral and cellular links of nonspecific immunity, the reduction of birth and postpartum pathology, the increase in the effectiveness of treatment, and the improvement of reproductive function.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(2):221-231
pages 221-231 views

Risk management in agriculture

Methodical approach to assessing risks of possible yield losses during implementation of agricultural technologies

Yakushev V.V., Voropayev V.V., Lomakin V.S.


The methods of risk assessment and decision-making in the management of agrotechnology were studied in order to develop a methodical approach to assessing the risks of possible yield losses in case of deviations from the project parameters in the implementation of agrotechnology. The study uses methods of analyzing information from the subject area of risk management in the management of agricultural technology. A registry of possible deviations in the design values of process parameters in the implementation of agricultural technologies has been compiled. A new approach has been developed to assess the risks of possible yield losses in the implementation of agrotechnology with deviations in process parameters from project values. Using the proposed approach will provide an automated ranking of options for decisions on the degree of risk of possible crop failure in case of deviations from the designed values, which will facilitate the transition to intelligent management of crop production.

RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries. 2022;17(2):232-244
pages 232-244 views

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